Camfield, Gregg. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Comprehensive collection of original essays presents discussion of Twain’s individual works, covering topics such as themes, characters, language, and subjects that interested Twain. Includes an appendix on researching Twain that lists useful secondary sources and an extensive annotated bibliography of Twain’s novels, plays, poems, and other writings.
Coulombe, Joseph L. “Mark Twain as Western Outlaw: Masculine Language, Violence, and Success in Roughing It.” In Mark Twain and the American West. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003. Analyzes Roughing It and some of Twain’s other works to describe how he deliberately altered nineteenth century concepts of the American West. Describes the central role of the West in Twain’s creation of his public persona.
Emerson, Everett. Mark Twain: A Literary Life. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Masterful work—a complete revision of Emerson’s The Authentic Mark Twain (1984)—traces the development of Twain’s writing against the events in his life and provides illuminating discussions of many individual works.
Gerber, John. Mark Twain. Boston: Twayne, 1988. Includes a concise introduction to Roughing It, with discussion of the work’s...
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