What is the meaning of the soliloquy in Act 3, Scene 2, lines 17-33, in Romeo and Juliet?

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Juliet's soliloquy in act 3, scene 2, concerns her eagerness regarding her upcoming wedding night.

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The impatience of both lovers is one of the play's themes, and in this passage from her soliloquy as she awaits Romeo on her wedding night, Juliet expresses that impatience. Twenty-four hours ago she had not yet laid eyes on Romeo, but just as she could barely contain herself as her nurse made her marriage arrangements in the morning, now she can scarcely wait for Romeo to arrive to consummate the marriage.

This prelude to the bed scene is important to the plot. It has to be established that the newlyweds have had sexual intercourse or the marriage will not be considered "real" in the eyes of the church or the law. A marriage only had legal standing at that time if the couple became "one flesh." Their night together is thus the final step in making the marriage complete. Without this, their vows could be easily annulled. For Juliet's proposed marriage to Paris to carry the full weight of shame and bigamy, she has to be fully wed to Romeo.

Beyond this, the marriage soliloquy shows Juliet's lust. She loves Romeo and wants to be with him. Her character trait of impatience is also emphasized as she makes statements such as

Come, night. Come, Romeo. Come, thou day in night ...

She doesn't want to wait for lovemaking anymore than Romeo does. She also is just as much of a wordsmith as Romeo, meaning the two are well matched, unlike Juliet and the clunky Paris. She shows her skill with language with lines such as the following, which describes Romeo in relation to the night as

Whiter than new snow upon a raven’s back

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In this soliloquy, Juliet is waiting for Romeo to return to consummate their marriage. She claims that while she might own "the mansion of love," she does not yet possess it, which is a poetic way of saying the marriage has not yet been made complete. In Roman Catholic tradition, a marriage is not official or even binding until the couple has sexual relations, but Juliet seems more concerned with finally having a physical relationship with her husband than in being concerned over their marriage being annulled (a likely scenario should either of their families find out about the match).

Throughout the soliloquy, Juliet refers to her upcoming wedding night with eagerness, using a great amount of figurative language to get the point across. The image of night is particularly significant since it is only at night that she and Romeo can be together without either of their families finding out. She describes night as a "sober-suited matron, all in black," which initially suggests repression and perhaps even death, but follows this image up with the plea that this imposing matron "learn me how to lose a winning match / Play'd for a pair of stainless maidenhoods." Interestingly, Juliet is describing the upcoming consummation of her marriage as though it were a wrestling match which will end in her forfeiting her virginity to Romeo.

The soliloquy serves to illustrate Juliet's desire and to create a sense of calm before Juliet's happy mood is shattered by the Nurse's news of Tybalt's death and Romeo's hand in it.

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This speech is one in which Juliet is anxiously awaiting Romeo's arrival. It uses many figures of speech to impress on the audience the depth of her love and longing for her beloved. Overall, the effect is one of "hyperbole" or exaggeration. She personifies the night as "loving, black-brow'd night," turning the night into something human and comforting rather than a time of danger. She longs for Romeo and suggests that the joy she feels in seeing Romeo at night makes night more pleasant than day for her. She imagines that after he dies his soul might appear as stars in the heavens so beautiful that everyone would prefer them to daylight. 

Her metaphor about purchasing the mansion of love but not possessing it refers to the marriage having been performed but not consummated. Just as the purchase of a house is not really complete until one has taken possession of it, marriage was not completed until it had been consummated on a wedding night. In fact, an unconsummated marriage can, according to Roman Catholic canon law, be annulled, i.e. treated as if it never actually existed: 

Can. 1142 For a just cause, the Roman Pontiff can dissolve a non-consummated marriage between baptized persons or between a baptized party and a non-baptized party at the request of both parties or of one of them, even if the other party is unwilling.

Finally, she reiterates her impatience to see Romeo. 

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As Romeo and Juliet are married between Acts 2 and 3, Juliet anxiously awaits their wedding night in Act 3, scene 2.  The lines you're referencing occur at the beginning of the scene; in them, Juliet describes the impatience she feels waiting for Romeo. 

In lines 17-23, Juliet comments on Romeo's allure and says that when he's dead, and if he's cut into "little stars," he'll make the night so beautiful that no one will want it to be daytime.  (Of interest is the pronoun used in line 18.  In early editions of the play, the line read "when I shall die," and text with this edition often footnote that Juliet might mean that when she's dead she'll share Romeo's beauty with the world.  The pronoun was changed from "I" to "he" in the Fourth Quarto.)

In the rest of the lines you list, Juliet uses figurative language to describe the impatience she feels while waiting for Romeo.  She comares her impatience to the eagerness of a child who has new clothes but is not yet allowed to wear them, and she likens her new (but not yet consummated) marriage to Romeo to a "mansion of a love" which she has bought but not yet "possessed."

Finally, when Juliet sees the Nurse returning, she remarks that any news containing Romeo's name is "heavenly." 

Again, these lines all show how eager Juliet is to see Romeo. 

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