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What is the opposite of Romanticism?

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Victorianism can be considered the "opposite of Romanticism." Romanticism encouraged individualism and the free expression of personal feelings, and it relied on emotion and imagination as sources of inspiration rather than superior intellect or social standing. What most poets tried to see and represent was nature as the universal and permanent elements in human experience. External nature, the landscape, attracted attention throughout the eighteenth century as a source of pleasure and an object of inquiry.

Historically, the Victorian Age was characterized by rapid change and developments in nearly every arena—from advances in medical, scientific, and technological knowledge to changes in population growth and location. Over time, this rapid transformation deeply affected the country's mood: an age that began with a confidence and optimism leading to economic boom and prosperity eventually gave way to uncertainty and doubt regarding Britain's place in the world.

The year 1830 is generally viewed as the end of the Romantic period in Great Britain, and in this manner makes an advantageous beginning date for Victorianism, which formally starts in 1837 (the year Victoria became Queen) and ends in 1901 (the year of her death). Amid Victoria's rule, the number of inhabitants in England dramatically increased, from 14 million to 32 million. The professional class in England grew quickly, and soon, there was a nouveau riche class, who had made fortunes from fruitful business ventures.

Numerous scholars felt that authority in business and industry was paid for at the terrible cost of human welfare and that any alleged advancement had been increased by forsaking customary rhythms of life and conventional examples of human connections. Although many Victorians shared a sense of satisfaction in the industrial and political preeminence of England during this period, they also suffered from an anxious sense of something lost, a sense of being displaced persons in a world made alien by technological changes that had been exploited too quickly for the adaptive powers of the human psyche.

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Realism might be considered the opposite of Romanticism.

Consider the elements of Romanticism (although, since there is no real "romanticism manifesto", we might say that these are properties observed and categorized after the fact, rather than as distinct intentions of the creators):

-Romanticism is a reaction against a perceived loss of emotional expression due to the materialism in the modern social and scientific world.

-Romanticism values originality, spontaneity and passion.

-Romanticism is concerned with feelings rather than facts; in fact reality may be freely distorted to suit the artistic purpose, and rules of organization are considered limitations and are to be avoided.

Realism contrasts with these values. Realism emphasizes, unsurprisingly, the real world. It is sometimes noted for its portrayals of ugliness or filth, and is sometimes appropriated, such as by the Soviets, to glorify the common person, working class, or the poor. More generally, it saw pointless artificiality in the idea or depiction of the supernatural or heroic, preferring to find honor in reality rather than soullessness as the Romanticists did. Additionally, Realism frequently treats human subjects rather than landscapes, as Romanticism often did due to its tendency to focus on nature.

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