Romance of the Three Kingdoms

by Luo Guanzhong

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Last Updated on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 360

Luo Guanzhong’s romance traces the history of China’s Han Dynasty through multiple lineages. The author draws on traditional tales but creates a unique synthesis, focusing on heroic characters as they vie for power, form alliances, and battle each other’s armies for control.

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As the founder of one kingdom of the three, Liu Pei is one protagonist. Luo Guanzhong portrays him as a great lord, worthy of popular respect, who was the Han Dynasty’s legitimate heir. His legendary prowess includes not only his incredible skill as a warrior and fierceness in battle but also dignified and calm under pressure. The author emphasizes his good judgment and nobility, clearly positioning him as a noble hero. Liu Pei’s background was humble but also learned; earning his way by making shoes, he also studied to improve his mind. Ultimately he conquers two kingdoms and is the driving force for the union of all three.

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Kuan Yü, Liu Pei’s sworn brother, is his devoted right-hand-man. A very learned man, specializing in military strategy, he is dignified and good-looking. From his administrative position as provincial governor, however, Kuan Yü's conflict with an opponent leads to his death. Vengeance over this killing brings Liu Pei and Chang Fei into a precarious position that threatens their key alliances.

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Latest answer posted May 27, 2019, 10:29 pm (UTC)

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Of the three leaders, Chang Fei is the most mercurial and least scholarly. Coming from the merchants and artisans, this powerfully built, short man is fearless in combat but also clever at fooling his enemies. Chang is assassinated for trying to exact vengeance for Kuan’s death.

Chu-ko Liang or Chuko K’ung-ming becomes the prime minister. Beyond being the consummate politician, willing to engage in deceit if it means winning, he is also a sorcerer. He also writes a book about military strategy and the occult. Chu-ko triumphs by uniting the kingdom, after surviving long enough to begin forming a coalition.

Although a great leader, Ts’ao Ts’ao, the king of Wei, is cruel and ruthless. His malevolent disposition undermines his potential success as an administrator. Luo’s portrayal is somewhat more sympathetic than other versions, which emphasize his evil nature.

Characters Discussed

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Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 733

Liu Pei

Liu Pei, the legitimate heir to the Han Dynasty, the founder of one of the Three Kingdoms, and the exalted lord of a great people. His deeds are legend. Although history does not altogether bear out his nobility, in this involved tale he is a patriarchal warrior, noble and amiable, loyal to his friends, and terrible in battle. These attributes lie under a calm exterior, a dignified carriage, and eyes that supposedly can see from the back of his head. He is commonly called Liu Yuan-te. His rise from protector of a widowed mother, shoemaker, and able scholar to a leader in the rebellion occurs before he is twenty-eight years old. Wherever he goes, he inspires confidence, and with the help of his two friends, he conquers two of the Three Kingdoms and makes it possible to fuse the three before his death and the passing of his reign to a weakling son.

Kuan Yü

Kuan Yü, a clear-headed strategist; he is handsome, dignified, and somewhat aloof but awe-inspiring. So daring and resourceful a leader is he that he is revered as a war god and his deeds are still passed along in oral tradition. Determined to defend his sworn brother Liu Pei, he becomes second in command. A learned man, quick of wit, and austere, Kuan, or Yun-ch’ang (meaning “long as a cloud”), is the idealized Chinese scholar-gentleman-warrior. He antagonizes a rival leader, however, when he is recalled from the wars and made governor of a province; hence, he is killed. Liu Pei and Chang Fei avenge his death as they had sworn to do but thereby weaken the alliances.

Chang Fei

Chang Fei, the first to recognize Liu but the least learned and most blunt of the triumvirate. He is an extremely elemental and realistic man. Rather short, with a bullet head, raucous voice, and bristling mustache, he is called I-te and is a wine seller and butcher by trade. He is the best soldier, the most daring in hand-to-hand combat, and surprisingly energetic and resourceful. One of his stratagems is the appearance of drunkenness to surprise his enemy. When Kuan is killed, Chang swears vengeance and is assassinated in the attempt.

Chu-ko Liang

Chu-ko Liang, more often known as Chuko K’ung-ming, the prime minister, whose abilities include conjuring, enchantment, magic, and sorcery. He is a remarkable man, talented in duplicity and stratagems, led by an ascendant star. It is he who finally unites the kingdoms. He is the only one of the original group to survive the first stages toward building a coalition. Liu is largely unsuccessful until this brilliant recluse is called out of his hermitage. Tragically worn out from the extreme labors of his loyalty, he dies, but he leaves a valuable book of strategy in warfare and a number of occult secrets.

Chiang Wei

Chiang Wei, Chu-ko’s successor, the last of the great heroes of legend and fact, the carrier of a wooden image of his mentor to frighten men in battle. A young and brilliant scholar, loyal and filial, he is much esteemed as a warrior. Chu-ko Liang chooses him from among all others after testing his abilities.

Ts’ao Ts’ao

Ts’ao Ts’ao, the king of Wei, the greatest single leader, although unscrupulous and cruel. Much more successful than his adversaries, at least in the beginning, Ts’ao is especially gifted in the art of government. Portrayed in later Chinese drama as the stereotyped villain, he is herein a master strategist, wily conspirator, and forceful administrator. To achieve his ambitions, he resorts to trickery and cunning more diligently than all the others. A seer thinks him able to rule the world but too wicked to manage it.

Chou Yü

Chou Yü, another of the brilliant young scholar-warriors, the antagonist of the wizard, and the great defender of the opposition forces of Sun Ch’uan.

Ssü-ma I

Ssü-ma I, the ultimate in rulers, a composite of the other heroes, who successfully establishes the kingdom.

Sun Ch’uan

Sun Ch’uan, the founder of the Wu Kingdom. He and Liu Pei form an alliance and defeat the forces of Ts’ao Ts’ao.

Chao Yün

Chao Yün, a brave general of the Shu Han Kingdom.

Lü Po

Lü Po, a great warrior but one without principles. He is famous for his romantic involvement with Tiao Shan.

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