Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

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Robinson Crusoe

(Critical Survey of Contemporary Fiction)

The third son of an English merchant family from York, Robinson Crusoe rejects the comfort and security of his home and against his father’s advice embarks on a life of adventure. “Bent upon seeing the world,” he sets sail from London aboard a ship bound for Africa. En route, he is captured by Turkish pirates and sold into slavery. After managing to escape, he sails to Brazil aboard a Portuguese trader. There he buys a small plantation, but, once again feeling restless, he sails to Africa for slaves. On this voyage he is shipwrecked and finds himself marooned on a small island off the South American coast.

There for the next 24 years he learns to survive by using his ingenuity and resourcefulness to contrive the necessities of life. Much of Crusoe’s story reads like a diary of his life as a castaway, but he is such an appealing narrator that he holds our interest. His greatest adventure comes in his 24th year when he discovers a strange footprint on the beach. Finding that cannibals have come ashore, he plans to ambush them and rescues one of their prisoners, whom he names Friday. The two men exist as master and servant as Crusoe gradually civilizes his new companion. Eventually they free two other captives, Friday’s father and a Spaniard.

As well as being an exciting tale of adventure and survival, Defoe’s story celebrates the sturdy, self-reliant Englishman character who can learn to exist under the most unfavorable circumstances by using his native wits and common sense. Readers have always enjoyed the details of how Crusoe slowly transforms his uninhabited island into a productive homestead. He overcomes his isolation and despair through his faith in God and his knack for keeping busy with his daily work.

Along with John Bunyan’s PILGRIM’S PROGRESS, this book stands as one of the great moral allegories of Protestant literature. Though written for adults, it has become one of the perennial favorites in children’s literature for its example of the self-reliant individual who triumphs over adversity.

Bibliography:

Damrosch, Leopold, Jr. God’s Plot and Man’s Stories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Damrosch devotes a chapter to Robinson Crusoe, which he reads largely within the context of Puritan doctrine. The result is a first-rate and highly recommended discussion of the work.

Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. Edited by Michael Shinagel. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994. The perfect beginner’s guide to Defoe’s great novel. In addition to an authoritative text of Robinson Crusoe , Shinagel provides selections from twentieth century...

(The entire section is 630 words.)