Robert Lowell Biography


(Masterpieces of American Literature)

ph_0111226266-Lowell.jpg Robert Lowell Published by Salem Press, Inc.

Robert Trail Spence Lowell, Jr., was born into the well-known Lowell family of Boston. His father, however, was not a distinguished member of that family, being a commander in the United States Navy and later an unsuccessful businessman. At the time of Robert’s birth, his mother’s family, the Winslows, had more money and more prestige, and his mother smothered her son with affection, while denigrating her husband’s incompetence. Lowell’s memoir “91 Revere Street” in Life Studies (1959) shows a sensitive child caught in the perpetual conflict of his parents.

Lowell attended a fashionable prep school, St. Mark’s, from 1930 to 1935 and Harvard University until 1937. He rebelled against his respectable parents in 1937 and left Harvard to pursue a possible career as a poet by going to live with the established poet Allen Tate in Clarksville, Tennessee. In 1937, Lowell entered Kenyon College to study with the poet John Crowe Ransom; he graduated summa cum laude in 1940. Lowell also met such lifelong friends at Kenyon as Randall Jarrell and Peter Taylor; he would often write about them in his later poetry.

Lowell was attempting to become a modern American poet by absorbing the ideas and techniques of Tate and Ransom; both poets exemplified and supported the New Criticism. The New Criticism focused on the poem rather than the poet, and it used as models such seventeenth century poets as John Donne. A proper poem, in the New Critics’ view, was complex, with rich imagery, and filled with recondite allusions.

In 1940, Lowell married his first wife, the fiction writer Jean Stafford. The marriage was stormy. Each writer was producing significant work at the time, although Stafford was more financially successful than was Lowell. Lowell’s political beliefs added to the complexities of his life. He became a conscientious objector in the early 1940’s when he learned about the bombing of the civilian population in Germany. In 1943, he was sentenced to a year in prison for refusing to be inducted into the military. He wrote a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt stating his position, his “manic statement/ telling off the state and president.” During this period, Lowell converted to Catholicism; this provided the subject matter for many of his early poems. He was later to reject Catholicism as the answer to his quest for a higher authority.

In 1944, Lowell’s first book of poetry, Land of Unlikeness, was published. It was in the complex and allusive style that the New Critics favored, and the reviews, while not extensive, were favorable. The true breakthrough volume for Lowell was his next book of poetry, Lord Weary’s Castle, published in 1946. It was...

(The entire section is 1118 words.)


(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Lowell is perhaps the most important American poet of the last half of the twentieth century. He expanded the range and possibilities of poetry’s subject matter with his confessional and political poems; no longer would poets have to write in the prescribed New Critical fashion. He also altered the way in which readers look at such traditional forms as the elegy and the sonnet.

Lowell’s style was also innovative. Those “words meat-hooked from the living steer” in his later poems showed that letters, diaries, and advertisements could become forceful entities in poetry. Above all, Lowell’s voice added an intensity and power to American poetry that had been lacking.


(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Robert Lowell was born into an established family of influential but unhappy New England Protestants. His mother’s neurotic personality and his father’s professional failure gave rise to frequent family tensions that may account for Lowell’s later depressions and his feelings of spiritual homelessness. Inspired by Allen Tate’s idea that poetry expresses experienced revelations of larger, impersonal ideas, Lowell transferred from Harvard to Kenyon College, where John Crowe Ransom taught him to use poetry as a craft with which to structure experience. After graduation in 1940 and conversion to Roman Catholicism, Lowell opposed America’s involvement in World War II. His refusal to be drafted into the army earned him a year’s confinement in jail described in “Memories of West Street and Lepke” in Life Studies. In 1965, Lowell publicly rejected President Lyndon B. Johnson’s invitation to the White House Festival of the Arts—to Lowell, the idea of Americans killing innocent Vietnamese civilians echoed the Indian wars of earlier American history. Lowell’s political activism reached its peak when he accompanied Senator Eugene McCarthy during the Democratic primaries in 1968.

Later in Lowell’s life, his depressions, which were serious to the point that he at times was hospitalized, began to recur annually. Lowell’s poetry became increasingly personal, at the expense of religion and formal structure. Looking for a sense of home,...

(The entire section is 420 words.)