Reading Lao Tzu Again in the New Year Analysis

Charles Wright

The Poem

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

“Reading Lao Tzu Again in the New Year” is a poem of middle length (forty-seven lines) written in free verse. The title is somewhat misleading, since neither Lao Tzu nor whatever work of his Charles Wright has been reading is mentioned in the poem. Instead, the reading of Lao Tzu’s poetry and his view of nature seem to trigger a meditation on the end of the year and the absences or emptiness in nature and humankind. The speaker of the poem is the same speaker who appears in all the poems of Chickamauga and Wright’s next book, the Pulitzer Prize-winning Black Zodiac (1997). He is an aspect of Wright himself, a seeker of some ultimate truth, some “essence,” who never seems to find the answers he is seeking. Instead, in this poem, the search sets in motion a meditation on “essence” that deals primarily with time and the winter landscape. The poem is divided into three distinct sections and has a clear movement and development. The first two sections portray the world as dead and the speaker close to despair. The third section shifts from this gloom to affirmation.

The poem begins with the “Snub end of a dismal year.” The focus is on winter and the dying of nature rather than on any suggestion of renewal provided by the new year. This sense of endings is further defined and intensified in the description of the landscape. The sky has an “undercoat of blackwash,” and in his dead world the speaker must “answer to/ My...

(The entire section is 423 words.)

Forms and Devices

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

One of the most important devices of the poem is Wright’s use of free verse. It is not a free verse that arbitrarily breaks lines; there is, instead, a clear integrity of the line. Wright also sets one line off against another by indenting some lines far toward the right margin. He thus creates a counterpoint between lines, adds asides that comment on the previous line, and makes forceful caesuras between lines.

Wright uses a number of traditional poetic devices in the poem, but imagery is clearly the most important. There are images of emptiness or diminishment in the first section—the “dwarf” orchard and the sky with its “undercoat of blackwash.” It is the “snub” end of a dismal year. There is also an interesting allusion in the first section: “this shirt I want to take off,/ which is on fire.” These lines allude to the shirt of Nessus, which caused Hercules to go mad after putting it on. In that fit of madness, he killed his wife and children.

The second section continues the negative imagery. Failure “reseeds the old ground”—a brilliant image that reverses the renewal of “seeding” into a cycle of failure and hopelessness. The rest of the second section is more statement than imagery: “Prosodies rise and fall./ Structures rise and fall.” There is, once more, a cycle that does not renew but only repeats. The references to prosody and structure are literary and suggest the problem of creating a meaningful...

(The entire section is 485 words.)


(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

Andrews, Tom, ed. The Point Where All Things Meet: Essays on Charles Wright. Oberlin, Ohio: Oberlin College Press, 1995.

Bourgeois, Louis. “An Interview with Charles Wright.” The Carolina Quarterly 56 (Spring/Summer, 2004): 30-37.

Wright, Charles. Halflife: Improvisations and Interviews, 1977-1987. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.

Wright, Charles. Quarter Notes: Improvisations and Interviews. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.