Point of view is the "eye" through which a story is told. The narrator in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven" uses the words "I," "me," and "my" throughout the poem, indicating that the poem is told from the first-person central point of view. The narrator is at the center of the events of the poem, not peripheral to the story, and it's through the narrator's "eye" and the narrator's perceptions that the events of the poem unfold and are observed and interpreted.
A first-person narrator can be reliable or unreliable. A reliable narrator is a narrator who is essentially trustworthy. What the reliable narrator presents to the reader is based on their own experience, and the narrator appears to be relatively objective, accurate, consistent, impartial, and truthful in that presentation.
An unreliable narrator is notably subjective or biased, misunderstands or misinterprets what they observe, and cannot be trusted to present events and their reactions to those events objectively and truthfully to the reader.
Even though the narrator of "The Raven" presents his own experiences to the reader, he is otherwise wholly unreliable in that he tells the reader that he's depressed, lonely, heartbroken, and grief-stricken at the loss of his love, the "rare and radiant maiden" Lenore, and that his emotional state affects how he perceives everything around him. The reader can readily discern through the narration that the narrator is emotionally unstable, and that his mental state appears to deteriorate through the course of the poem.
The unreliable nature of the narrator of "The Raven" draws the reader into the poem, and causes the reader to look at and interpret the events of the story through the eyes and emotions of the narrator—to see what the narrator sees, and feel what the narrator feels—as disconcerting to the reader as that might be.
In "The Philosophy of Composition," Poe's essay about his process of writing "The Raven," Poe notes that he first considers what he calls the "effect" that he intends for the poem to have on the reader. Everything in the writing of the poem evolves from this "effect," which is achieved by a "unity of impression." By unifying all of the elements of the poem, a specific "effect" is produced, an effect "of which the heart, the intellect, or (more generally) the soul is susceptible."
Poe considers the "theme" of "The Raven" as a subtle, suggestive, "under-current" of the poem, not an overt, obvious "over-current" such as the nature of loss, grief, death, the afterlife, the supernatural, madness, despair, or any other of the many thematic interpretations that have been imposed on the poem.
Poe writes that the theme, the "effect," and the "under-current" of "The Raven" lies inside and outside the poem itself, and that this "under-current" is "the human thirst for self-torture." This is exemplified in the poem by the instability and unreliability of the narrator, and by the self-torturing nature of the questions that the narrator asks the raven—and the reader asks vicariously through the narrator—even though the narrator and the reader already know the answer to the questions, which is "Nevermore."