In "The Raven," how does the narrator's emotional state change throughout the poem?

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In "The Raven," the narrator's emotional state changes during the poem by becoming increasingly frantic and desperate as he considers eternity without his "lost Lenore."

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Because the presence of the raven causes the speaker to think of his unknown eternity, potentially without his "lost Lenore," the speaker grows increasingly frantic and forlorn.

In the beginning of the poem, the speaker is "weary" yet at ease. He is comfortable enough that he is nearly asleep...

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when he hears a knock at the door. Curious, he tries to find the source of this sound, and when he opens the door to find only darkness, he thinks that perhaps Lenore has returned to him. Whispering her name into the darkness, the speaker is slightly angered when there is no reply except the echo of his own whisper.

When the raven steps in to the chamber, the speaker's anger grows. He addresses the bird directly, calling him "ghastly" and "grim" as he demands answers about the bird's origins. The bird's presence reminds the speaker that Lenore will never again be found in his chamber, and he grows passionately irate, screaming at the bird and calling it both a "wretch" and a "devil."

The speaker then begins questioning the raven, asking it if he will ever find relief from the pain of losing Lenore. When the bird replies with the one word he is seemingly able to speak, "Nevermore," the speaker "shrieks" at him, commanding the bird to leave. This is the pinnacle of his anger, utterly distraught by the bird's answers and presence.

The last stanza brings a calmer sense of closure to the speaker's emotions. Although the bird's presence is constant, the speaker has seemingly accepted his fate. This stanza lacks the agitation that is present in the preceding stanzas. Instead, the speaker is resigned to the fact that his soul is forever cast into the metaphorical shadows of life.

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The poem unfolds in such a way that the author or narrator progresses from mild annoyance to absolute madness or insanity. He, at first, is rather intrigued by the bird, until he realizes that the bird's one-word vocabulary (Nevermore) is merely a reflection of his own tortured grief. It is the repetition of this word that drives our narrator insane by the poem's end, as he recalls and deeply laments the loss of his one love, Lenore.

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He starts off just sitting in his chair, reading a book, and he describes himself as "weak and weary."  He was so weary that he didn't even get up to answer the knocking at his door.  He then describes, in more detail, his emotional state.  He is longing for his lost love, a bit depressed, and had sought an escape from that longing in his book.  He says, "eagerly I wished the morrow," and he has "sorrow for the lost Lenore".

But then, he starts to become alarmed and scared.  He says the knocking "filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before" and he gathers courage to go open the door.  He stands there, describing his emotional state.  He is "wondering, fearing, doubting, dreaming."  He is really disturbed now, and getting a bit freaked out.  He stays pretty scared.  Later he opens the door again "with many a flirt and flutter" of his heart.

Once the raven appears, his fear turns to awe and amazement as it speaks the words, "Nevermore."  He says, "much I marvelled", and he was "startled much that the stillness was broken".  He then turns ponderous.  He sits down and "betook myself to linking Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore—...Meant in croaking 'Nevermore.'"  But then, he gets anxious and angry that he can't figure out what the bird means.  He demands to know, he yells, he frets, "implores", "shrieks", to no avail.

So, throughout the course of the poem he goes from weary, to terrified, to startled and awed, to ponderous, to angry and demanding.  I hope that helps!

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In "The Raven," the speaker's emotional state heightens as he becomes more and more engrossed in self-torture as he is agitated by the raven's persistence in perching upon the bust and its haunting repetition of the harrowing word, "Nevermore."  This word finds immediate echo in the melancholy heart of the man who has recently lost his beloved Lenore. 

In writing about his poem, Poe remarks,

It will be observed that the words 'from out my heart' involve the first metaphorical expression in the poem.  They, with the answer 'Nevermore,' dispose the mind to seek a moral in all that has been previously narrated.

While at first the narrator believes that the bird has been sent by angels to offer him respite in his grief, the repetition of the single word brings with it a torment of remembrance that overtakes the speaker as until he believes that the bird "or fiend" has come from a tempest "and the Night's Plutonian shore!"  He begs the raven to

...quit the bust above my door!/Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!

Then, when the raven says "Nevermore," a new connotation of this word enters the speaker's mind.  Despairing of any relief from his grief, he says,

And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor/Shall be lifted--nevermore!

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In "The Raven," how does the speaker's state of mind change as the poem progresses and what is its cause?

In the poem, the speaker moves from melancholy to outright despair. His initial sorrow looks to have been caused by Lenore's death; however, by the end of the poem, his unhappiness is caused by the realization that his grief is eternal.

In the poem, the Raven's words "Nevermore" is significant. Poe uses this repeated word to stress the irrevocable power of death and its ability to overwhelm one's existence. Interestingly, Poe believed that enduring melancholy was the highest form of human adulation and that sorrow for the death of a beautiful woman was closely tied to beauty of expression.

In the early stanzas, the speaker is dejected and weary. When he hears knocking, he tells himself not to hope that it's anything more than a stranger seeking entrance to his chamber. The phrases "nothing more" and "nevermore" stress the permanent nature of the speaker's sorrow: his Lenore will never grace his presence again, and thus, his soul will never be lifted from the depths of melancholy.

He prays desperately that nepenthe (a powerful ancient anti-depressant) will help him forget Lenore, but the raven ominously pronounces that forgetfulness will elude him: he will "nevermore" forget Lenore. He then pleads for "balm in Gilead," but the unrepentant raven assures him that he will never know relief from his melancholy. The speaker then tries a different tactic; he questions whether he will ever hold the "sainted" Lenore in the presence of the angels. The raven pronounces that he will "nevermore" know that joy. The despondent tone casts a mood of dark resignation over the entire poem.

So, in the beginning of the poem, the speaker is depressed. However, he still entertains a shred of hope in the deepest recesses of his psyche. He imagines that there might be a hereafter, where he may be reunited with his love. He even entertains the idea that God will relieve him of his unending, torturous grief. By the end of the poem, however, the speaker becomes resigned to his inescapable fate. He realizes with a pang that he will never be free from melancholy and that he is doomed to eternal sorrow.

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In "The Raven," how does the speaker's state of mind change as the poem progresses and what is its cause?

Well first of all, the main character is grieving over the loss of Lenore at the beginning of the poem. It's a night-time during a time in history that didn't have electricity, so in my mind I see a barely lit chamber by few candles. He's in a very loney and depressed place physically, emotionally and mentally; this is only aggitated by the entrance and annoying presence of the Raven. The speaker asks the Raven where he came from, not expecting an answer, and is shocked when the bird answers.  This helps to flip him out and he compensates by going off onto this tirade of speech with the bird.  It takes him hearing the word "Nevermore" five times before he reaches for an alcoholic drink to help ease the madness in his head ("Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe" Line 45). So the speaker goes from a sad and depressed state of mourning and ends up in a crazed, drunken state of hallucination (it would seem to me) because then he "sees" the Raven's shadow and his soul "floating on the floor" (Line 69).

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How does the narrator's attitude change towards the raven as "The Raven" progresses?

At first the speaker does not take the Raven very seriously. He assumes it is a tame bird that somehow escaped from its owner and is only seeking temporary shelter. He describes it in a facetious manner.

Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he,But with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door--

He actually smiles at the bird and jokes with it:

Then the ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore...

Tell me what thy lordly name is...

He assumes that the Raven will leave him eventually, and he is still feeling some amusement in the middle of the poem:

But the Raven still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling...

But he begins to speculate about what, if anything, the bird means by ""Nevermore." The narrator is beginning to take the black bird more seriously. The Raven is not a symbol of a lost maiden but a symbol of death and always had been a symbol of death since the saintly days of yore. When we are young we are immortal because we do not know we are mortal. When it occurs to us that some day we are going to die we think it is funny because that event is so far off that the day will never arrive--or maybe somebody will invent an immortality pill before our turn comes! The poem is about the way we view death throughout our lives. At first it seems amusing, then intriguing, then a little frightening, then ominous, then like a big black cloud hanging over us and everyone else, including those we love, and making life seem meaningless and horrible.

The Raven makes the speaker remember his lost Lenore, whom he had hoped to meet again in a later life. Actually the speaker had been half-hoping that the tapping he heard at his window might be the ghost of Lenore, which is why the only word spoken when he looked out the window "was the whispered word, "Lenore?" The name is followed by a question mark to show that the poet is wondering if he is being visited by his dead paramour. When the Raven tells him he will see her "Nevermore," he reacts with anger.

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil!--prophet still, if bird or devil--

He asks if there is balm in Gilead? This is a way of asking if there is any truth to the customary, conventional religious answer to the mystery of death, specifically as contained in the Bible. Is there really any hope of resurrection? And the Raven tells him "Nevermore," meaning that death is nothing but eternal oblivion without any hope.

He tries to expel the Raven from his home.

"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" I shrieked, upstarting--

This is the speaker's way of saying that he will simply refuse to think about the subject of death. After all, what good is there in thinking about something so unpleasant? But the bird refuses to leave. This is how the shadow of death stays with us as we grow old. We have given up hope and can only await our final hour.

And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor|Shall be lifted--nevermore!

Edgar Allan Poe was preoccupied with death, as shown, for instance, in "The Masque of the Red Death," in which he dwells on the idea that death is inescapable, and in the story "Ligeia," in which he includes the poem "The Conqueror Worm" and has his heroine express the horror and desperation which apparently haunted Poe himself and made him such an unhappy person.

"O God!" half shrieked Ligeia, leaping to her feet and extending her arms aloft with a spasmodic movement, as I made an end of these lines --"O God! O Divine Father! --shall these things be undeviatingly so? --shall this Conqueror be not once conquered? Are we not part and parcel in Thee? Who --who knoweth the mysteries of the will with its vigor? Man doth not yield him to the angels, nor unto death utterly, save only through the weakness of his feeble will." 

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How does the narrator's attitude change towards the raven as "The Raven" progresses?

The narrator of "The Raven" undergoes a range of emotions during his telling of the story. He begins the story in a sad mood because of the death of his love, Lenore; and in a heightened emotional state because of the gloomy literature he has been reading. He is somewhat frightened before realizing the true source of the tapping. At first he is curious to see that the noise he hears comes from a bird, and he seems happy to have some unexpected company in the middle of the night. When it rests upon the bust of the wise Pallas, the narrator considers that the bird, too, is "stately." To his amazement, he realizes that the bird's answer ("Nevermore") to his question makes sense. He becomes more startled at the bird's repeated answer; though it is always the same, the response seems to be a logical one. The narrator eventually becomes rattled; he "shrieked" at his guest. In the end, his view that the bird is infinitely wise causes him to believe tha its answers are in fact truth: That he can never recover from the grief he suffers for the lost Lenore. 

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What are some of the changes in the speaker's emotional state during the course of the poem "The Raven"?

The speaker goes from isolated and miserable to avoidance to confronting the raven, and then being entertained by him. 

Throughout the poem, the speaker seems to pass through some of the stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

When the poem begins, the speaker comments that it is late on a dismal night, and he is weak and tired.

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping … (stanza 1)

The speaker is miserable with grief because he has lost his love, Lenore.  He is studying not because he wants to, but because he is trying to distract himself from his sorrow. 

Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the lost Lenore – (stanza 2)

He is deep in the denial stage.  He knows that Lenore is dead, but he is trying to distract himself.  The knocking on the door is like a reminder.  When he can’t take it anymore, he stops denying the bird and responds in a combination out of anger and bargaining.

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
`Sir,' said I, `or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping (stanza 4)

The speaker is frustrated and possibly angry that the knocking will not stop.  He tries to tell the visitor that he didn’t hear him, and asks for forgiveness for not answering sooner.  The bargaining comes up empty though.  When he opens the door, no one is there.

The tapping continues, and the speaker can’t handle it any more.  He opens the door again, and this time he sees the bird.  He is so surprised that he actually smiles.

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,
`Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou,' I said, `art sure no craven. (stanza 8)

Unfortunately, that is not the end of it.  The speaker has to confront the fact that Lenore is dead.  He lashes out in anger, not really at the bird but at his grief.

`Wretch,' I cried, `thy God hath lent thee - by these angels he has sent thee
Respite - respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe, and forget this lost Lenore!' (stanza 14)

The speaker has decided that the bird is a thing of evil.  He does not want to face his grief.  He is being tortured by the bird.  The poor speaker sinks back into depression, only this time it is even deeper.

And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted - nevermore! (stanza 18)

Throughout the course of his experience with the bird, the speaker has progressed from denial to anger, and has now reached a deep depression.  He does not achieve acceptance in the typical way.  Instead, he seems to accept his continued depression.

The poem’s meaning has long been debated by many scholars, but one thing is clear.  The speaker undergoes a series of self-tortures as a result of his struggle with his grief.  In the end, he has either conquered nor accepted it.

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In Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven," how does the narrator's emotional state change throughout the poem?

In "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator's emotional state changes drastically throughout the poem. When the narrator initially hears the tapping at his door, he is very calm, stating “’Tis some visitor [...] tapping at my chamber door/ Only this and nothing more" (5-6). His calm demeanor seems strange, given how late it is to hear an unexpected sound at one's door, but the narrator is relaxed nonetheless. 

However, in the second stanza, the narrator states "Eagerly I wished the morrow" (9). Despite the initial calm, the narrator shows slight signs of unease. In the third stanza, as his curtains rustle, the narrator grows more concerned and seeks to calm his heart. He attempts to reassure himself that the tapping was just a visitor, that there is nothing to be afraid of. He grows bold in stanza four, and speaks in an effort to make contact with the unknown entity. Receiving no reply, the narrator's fear begins to grow in the next stanza:

Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before; (25-26)

The narrator's imagination is now running wild. Oddly, he whispers out the name of his lost love Lenore, but receives no reply. Still attempting to relax, he tries to convince himself that the sound was simply the wind. Finally, in the next stanza, the narrator discovers the source of the sounds as he opens the shutter and a raven comes in. This is somewhat of a relief to the narrator, who claims that it had the effect of "beguiling my sad fancy into smiling" (43).  Relieved, he jokingly attempts to strike up a conversation with the raven, asking the creature its name. It gives the only reply it ever does: "Nevermore." He expresses wonder at the raven's ability to speak so clearly, but then his sense of unease returns and he tries to convince himself that "On the morrow he will leave me, as my Hopes have flown before” (59). Here he uses a simile to connect the potential departure of the raven and the loss of his hopes, which seems somewhat strange. However, given the fact that earlier the narrator whispered the name of his lost love into the darkness, it is clear that he spends a great deal of time dealing with his feelings of loss. The reminder of his loss provokes further change in his mood. He begins to grow impatient, and in stanza 12 the language he uses to describe the raven changes. Words such as "ominous," "grim," and "ghastly" emerge as the narrator's attitude toward the once "stately" raven shifts.

In the thirteenth stanza, the mood shifts even further as the narrator finds himself unable to respond to "the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into [his] bosom’s core" (74). He is now at a loss for words, and as he leans back, his mind turns toward the velvet lining of the cushion on which he rests, which triggers the reminder that it is a cushion that "She shall press, ah, nevermore" (78). The narrator is now consumed by thoughts of the raven and Lenore. He begins to grow more unhinged, asking for "respite" and then demanding information that would ease his mourning for Lenore:

“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us—by that God we both adore
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore—
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.”
            Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.” (85-90)

The creature's answer inadequate, the narrator grows more enraged:
“Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!” I shrieked, upstarting—
“Get thee back into the tempest and the Night’s Plutonian shore!
 Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave my loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust above my door!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!”
            Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.” (91-96)
The once-civil narrator has now completely fallen apart. He shrieks at the raven and attempts to chase it out, but to no avail. The poem ends with the narrator's sad admission,
And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon’s that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o’er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
            Shall be lifted—nevermore! (97-102)
The narrator is left helpless, overshadowed by both the raven and his inability to comprehend his loss. During the course of the poem, the narrator's grief causes him to change from calm and civil to angry and aggressive.
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As the poem progresses, how does the speaker's attitude toward the raven change?

The poem "The Raven" by Edgar Allen Poe is, like most of Poe's work, rather dark, but we see a definite change of tone from the first stanza to the last.

In the first few stanzas of the poem, the narrator hardly even acknowledges the raven. He thinks it's a visitor of some sort, and he is unconcerned and unbothered. However, the tension rises when the narrator opens the door and finds only darkness on the other side. He then opens the window, and finally, the raven enters the poem.

At first, the narrator is more curious than anything. Even the bird's speech, "Nevermore," mostly just surprises him. He is fairly ambivalent about the raven; in fact, he even mourns the fact that by morning, the raven will surely have flown away.

After a long time of watching the raven, the narrator begins to think again of his lost love, and he begins to grow angry at the bird for the memories it evokes. He begs the raven for any other word, but the bird's bleak response is the same. The torment drives the speaker to shouts of desperation and hatred, as though the raven represents every suffering he has gone through in life.

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How does the speaker change throughout the poem "The Raven"?

Over the course of the poem, "The Raven," the speaker changes from melancholy to madness. At the beginning of the poem, the speaker is "weak and weary," grieving for Lenore and trying to distract himself by reading. When the raven first appears, he is somewhat diverted, even amused. He comes up with a perfectly rational explanation for the the raven's repetition of the word "Nevermore." Evidently, it is something his owner used to say, which the bird has learned to mimic.

As the poem progresses, however, the speaker becomes more and more unhinged. Though he knows what the bird will say, he insists on asking it questions, the answers to which plunge him deeper into despair. Finally, when his one-sided conversation has led him to conclude that happiness is impossible, in this world or the next, he flees from the raven, which refuses to move and therefore shows itself to be more resilient than he is. It appears that, at this point, the speaker's weak nerves have altogether given way to insanity.

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How does the relationship between the speaker and the raven change over the course of "The Raven"?

The poem starts with a knocking on the speaker's door, which he thinks is just a stranger. When the raven makes its first appearance, the speaker describes it as stately, with a countenance likened to that of a lord or lady (which basically means it stands tall and upright, with confidence). It is not until the raven first says, "Nevermore" that the mood begins to change. First, the speaker is simply surprised that the raven spoke, and then there is some despair and melancholy between the two of them, as if that one word weighed heavily on them both. But as the speaker sits on his floor and stares at the raven, contemplating what it meant by saying, "Nevermore," he becomes angry, calling the raven a wretch, a fiend, a demon.

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How does the narrator of "The Raven" change in the fourth stanza?

In the fourth stanza, the narrator undergoes a bit of a change in courage. In the third stanza, he says, he is filled with "fantastic terrors," likely referring to his fears about who could be knocking at his door at midnight. His heart is beating fast, and he "stood repeating" the same reassuring phase about it only being some visitor (as opposed to something scarier).

In the fourth stanza, as he rises from his chair, he calls to whoever is at the door, explaining why it has taken him so long to answer their knock. However, in the last two lines of the stanza, when he does open the door, he sees "Darkness there and nothing more" (line 24). With this particular phrase, then, the potential for supernatural happenings in this poem is established as a possibility. Prior to this, the narrator has attempted to be practical, but at this point, into the fifth stanza, he begins to wonder if it isn't the ghost of his lost love, Lenore, who has come to call. The fact that there was no one there to knock at his door puts him in the right frame of mind to receive the raven a few stanzas later and to attribute to that raven so many different supernatural possibilities.

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Does the speaker seem to change in "The Raven"? If so, how would you describe his feelings?

The narrator in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven" does indeed go through many emotional changes during the course of the poem. "Weak and weary," the narrator is nonetheless awake during the middle of the night, reading a book about ancient history in hopes of alleviating the misery he feels for his lost love. 

... --vainly I had sought to borrow / From my books surcease of sorrow--sorrow for the lost Lenore--

As he tries to nap, a noise is heard. The narrator becomes nervous, wondering about the cause of the sound. It is a raven, which flies inside and perches on a statue. At first the narrator is happy to have a visitor...

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling, / By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore...

and finds such humor in the situation that he speaks to the bird.

"Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven, / Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore--/
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!"

When the raven answers, "Nevermore," the narrator is filled with wonderment and begins a conversation with his new friend. But the narrator becomes perturbed with the bird's continuous reply of "Nevermore," and when the bird later fails to answer him, the man's overwhelming sadness causes him to become unglued. When he asks if he will ever recover from his lover's death, the raven once again answers in the same manner.

The air becomes "denser," and the narrator "shrieks," "cries," "implores" and then "shrieked" at the bird to rid him of its evil presence. He seems near madness.

"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" I shrieked, upstarting-- / "Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore! / Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken! / Leave my loneliness unbroken! --quit the bust above my door! / Take thy beak from out my heart,and / Take thy form from off my door!" "Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

The speaker's sorrow apparently will go on, and his "soul" is lost forever.

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In Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven," how, if at all, do the speaker's feelings evolve?

In Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven,” the speaker’s feelings alter and develop repeatedly as the poem progresses.  These alterations of feelings might be outlined as follows:

  • At the beginning of the poem, the speaker is feeling “weak and weary” (1) as well as sorrowful (10).
  • Later, after hearing rustling curtains, he feels “fantastic terrors never felt before” (14).
  • Later still, he is curious to know the source of the sounds he hears (19ff).
  • Apparently at one point he feels embarrassed by his preceding reactions (31).
  • Once he discovers the raven, he is full of even greater curiosity and wonder, especially when the raven begins to speak:

Much I marveled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly . . . (49)

  • Later the speaker seems to feel mournful as he assumes that even the raven may eventually leave him (58-60).
  • Later still, the speaker seems confident that he knows why the raven speaks as it does (62).
  • At one point he even seems amused by the raven’s comments: he mentions that the raven is capable of “beguiling all my fancy into smiling” (66).
  • The more time the speaker spends with the bird, the more fascinated he is: he finds himself pondering (“divining”) the meaning of the visit (75).
  • Later he finds himself sensing changes in the literal atmosphere of the room (79).
  • Finally he becomes highly emotional, twice denouncing the raven as a “thing of evil” (85, 92) and twice imploring it to answer his questions (88-89).
  • Sorrow returns in line 93, and a kind of emotional madness appears in line 97.
  • Finally, in the closing stanza, the speaker seems resigned to the raven’s continuing presence.

In short, the speaker goes through many emotions during the course of this poem. He begins in a kind of sorrowful resignation and ends feeling much the same way. The heavy emphasis on personal emotions – especially the highly intense emotions that appear in the final third of the work – helps to mark this work as a typical example of poetic Romanticism in general and of Poe’s heavily dark Romanticism in particular.

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