Ralph Ellison Ellison, Ralph (Vol. 79) - Essay


(Short Story Criticism)

Ralph Ellison 1914-1994

American short story writer, novelist, essayist, and editor.

The following entry provides an overview of Ellison's life and works of short fiction. See also Ralph Ellison Literary Criticism (Volume 1), and Volumes 3, 11, 26, 114.

Ellison is regarded as one of the most accomplished and influential authors of the twentieth century. Although he is best known for his widely acclaimed novel Invisible Man (1952), critics praise his short stories and assert that they provide valuable insight into his overall artistic development. In these works Ellison uses folklore, myth, and complex patterns of symbolism and allusion to illuminate important issues in the lives of African Americans, including racial repression, alienation, and betrayal.

Biographical Information

Born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on March 1, 1914, Ellison was raised in an atmosphere that encouraged self-fulfillment and cultural enrichment. After studying music from 1933 to 1936 at Tuskegee Institute, a college founded by Booker T. Washington to promote Black scholarship, Ellison traveled to New York City, where he met author Richard Wright and became involved in the Federal Writers' Project. Encouraged to contribute to New Challenge, a publication edited by Wright, Ellison began composing essays and stories that focus on the strength of the human spirit and the necessity for racial pride. Awarded a Rosenwald grant in 1945, Ellison began work on Invisible Man, which was hailed as a masterpiece upon its publication and garnered Ellison numerous honorary degrees and literary awards. He began work on a second novel, which he never finished. Excerpts from this novel, including “And Hickman Arrives,” comprise the last original fiction Ellison published, appearing sporadically as short stories in several journals during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time he also taught at Bard College (1958-61), Rutgers University (1962-69), and New York University (1970-79). Ellison died of cancer on April 16, 1994, in New York City. In 1999, a very abridged version of Ellison's second novel—a kaleidoscopic work exceeding 2,000 pages—was published as Juneteenth.

Major Works of Short Fiction

Thirteen of Ellison's short stories were collected posthumously in Flying Home and Other Stories (1996); commentators note that these stories recognize the prejudice suffered by African Americans and explore themes of racial and class identity. Ellison wrote numerous short stories that have been published individually, among them his earliest stories, “Slick Gonna Learn” and “The Birthmark,” which deal with police brutality and racial injustice. In the former, a Black man named Slick Williams is harassed and beaten after he inadvertently punches a white police officer. In the latter, a lynching is explained away by white patrolmen as an automobile accident. Some critics maintain that Ellison's better fiction emphasizes the positive aspects of African American life and often features individuals who attain a deeper sense of selfhood. His next three stories, “Afternoon,” “Mister Toussan,” and “That I Had the Wings,” feature two Black adolescent boys, Buster and Riley, who resist the restrictions placed upon them by whites and find positive role models within their own folk heritage. “Flying Home” and “King of the Bingo Game” are Ellison's most anthologized stories. “Flying Home” concerns a young Black pilot, at first contemptuous of his own race, whose self-esteem is restored by an elderly Black sharecropper and his son, who nurse him back to health after his airplane crashes on an Alabama farm owned by a white racist. In “King of the Bingo Game” an anonymous Black man desperately enters a bingo tournament with the hope of winning enough money to pay for his dying wife's medical expenses. As the game continues, however, the bingo wheel becomes symbolic of the man's inability to control his destiny. “Out of the Hospital and Under the Bar” and “Did You Ever Dream Lucky?” showcase the character Mary Rambo, who had earlier appeared in Invisible Man. The nine excerpts published from Ellison's incomplete second novel trace the events just prior to and following the assassination of Senator Sunraider (also known as Bliss), a light-skinned African American who earlier had renounced his adoptive Black father, Reverend Hickman, and espoused white supremacy by passing as white.

Critical Reception

Many of Ellison's short stories are discussed in relationship to Ellison's masterpiece, Invisible Man. One parallel found between the short stories and the novel is Ellison's complex portrayal of alienated young Black men who seek social recognition, a theme found in his stories “Flying Home” and “King of the Bingo Game.” Moreover, as is true of Invisible Man, Ellison's short stories generally focus on the strength of the human spirit and affirm the importance of racial pride and cultural identity. Critics have traced his political and literary development through his short stories, and contend that these pieces focus on themes that he later incorporated into Invisible Man. Others have underscored the importance of the stories as an appropriate genre for Ellison to express the complexity of the African American experience and to explore the meaning of it for himself and his work. His use of folklore in his stories has also been a frequent topic of discussion. In the late 1960s and 1970s some writers charged Ellison with perpetuating derogatory stereotypes of African Americans. Others disagreed, arguing that his exploration of the richness and oral tradition of Black folklore is a major reason for the enduring popularity and power of his fiction. In recent years commentators have also examined the role of psychology in his work, including his short fiction. Commentators assert that the growing body of criticism on Ellison's short fiction attests to the insights these stories provide into his political awakening and literary development.

Principal Works

(Short Story Criticism)

*Flying Home and Other Stories 1996

Invisible Man (novel) 1952

Shadow and Act: Essays (essays and interviews) 1964

Going to the Territory: Essays (essays, lectures, and interviews) 1986

The Collected Essays of Ralph Ellison (essays, lectures, and interviews) 1995

Juneteenth: A Novel (novel) 1999

Living with Music: Ralph Ellison's Jazz Writings (essays) 2001

*This volume contains stories written between 1937 and 1954, including “Afternoon,” “The Black Ball,” “Boy on a Train, “A Coupla Scalped Indians,” “In a Strange Country,” “Flying Home,” “A Hard Time Keeping Up,” “Hymie's Bull,” “I Did Not Learn Their Names,” “King of the Bingo Game,” “Mister Toussan,” “A Party Down at the Square,” and “That I Had the Wings.”

Susan L. Blake (essay date January 1979)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Blake, Susan L. “Ritual and Rationalization: Black Folklore in the Works of Ralph Ellison.” PMLA 94, no. 1 (January 1979): 121-36.

[In the following essay, Blake considers the role of African American folklore in Ellison's short stories.]

The predominant theme in the works of Ralph Ellison is the quest for cultural identity. Although he does not realize this himself, the protagonist of Invisible Man seeks identity, not as an individual, but as a black man in a white society. He encounters and combats the problem Ellison identified in an interview with three young black writers in 1965: “Our lives, since slavery, have been described mainly in terms...

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Robert G. O'Meally (essay date 1980)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: O'Meally, Robert G. “Apprenticeship.” In The Craft of Ralph Ellison, pp. 56-77. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.

[In the following essay, O'Meally traces Ellison's literary development through eight early short stories.]

The years 1939 to 1944 were an apprenticeship for Ellison who, in a New York Post feature story of 1943, was bylined as “a short story writer.” He published eight stories during this crucial five-year span, and his writing grew in eloquence and complexity from story to story. He wrote many more stories than he tried to publish, looking upon them as practice pieces, “five-finger exercises.” Operating in an...

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Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi (essay date winter 1983)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonjo. “‘The Old Order Shall Pass’: The Examples of ‘Flying Home’ and ‘Barbados.’” Studies in Short Fiction 20, no. 1 (winter 1983): 23-32.

[In the following essay, Ogunyemi assesses Ellison's “Flying Home” and Paule Marshall's “Barbados.”]

Let a new earth rise. Let another world be born. Let a bloody peace be written in the sky. Let a second generation full of courage issue forth; let a people loving freedom come to growth. Let a beauty full of healing and a strength of final clenching be the pulsing in our spirits and our blood. Let the martial songs be written, let the dirges disappear. Let a...

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David J. Herman (essay date September 1991)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Herman, David J. “Ellison's ‘King of the Bingo Game’: Finding Naturalism's Trapdoor.” English Language Notes 29, no. 1 (September 1991): 71-4.

[In the following essay, Herman discusses aspects of “King of the Bingo Game” that undercut its apparent literary naturalism.]

Prima facie, Ralph Ellison's “King of the Bingo Game”1 fits squarely into the tradition of literary naturalism.2 Ellison's extended treatment of the bingo wheel, for one thing, figures the same overriding concern with the issue of fate versus chance—the issue of determinism—manifest in, say, the famous open-safe scene in Dreiser's Sister...

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Edith Schor (essay date 1993)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Schor, Edith. “Short Stories: Early Explorations.” In Visible Ellison: A Study of Ralph Ellison's Fiction, pp. 15-36. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

[In the following essay, Schor underscores the importance of Ellison's early stories as “the arena for his discovery of the appropriate forms to express the African-American experience and for working out the meaning of the experience for himself.”]

Upon publication of Invisible Man, critical comment encompassed, indeed often centered upon, Ellison's treatment of African-American experience. The general reaction can be summarized by Harvey Breit's comment: “What is exciting about it is...

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John F. Callahan (essay date January 1997)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Callahan, John F. Afterword to “A Party Down at the Square.” Esquire 127, no. 1 (January 1997): 93-4.

[In the following essay, Callahan describes his discovery of Ellison's forgotten short story “A Party Down at the Square” and briefly explicates thematic and stylistic aspects of the tale.]

Ralph Ellison was no stranger to Esquire. As a college student in the thirties, he read early issues in black barbershops around Tuskegee, Alabama, and back in Oklahoma City, when he went home on vacation. In a 1958 letter to Saul Bellow, Ellison noted “the impact of the old Esquire magazine on kids in the provinces.” He singled out a Thomas Mann...

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Barbara Foley (essay date fall 1999)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Foley, Barbara. “Reading Redness: Politics and Audience in Ralph Ellison's Early Short Fiction.” Journal of Narrative Theory 29, no. 3 (fall 1999): 323-39.

[In the following essay, Foley contends that Ellison's early stories and journalism provide insights into his political and literary growth.]

With the death of Ralph Ellison in April 1994 and the recent publication of his posthumous—and long-awaited—second novel, Juneteenth, the curve of the career of the author of Invisible Man would now appear to be complete. Although the version of Juneteenth produced by John Callahan, Ellison's literary executor, promises to be the topic of...

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Hal Blythe and Charlie Sweet (essay date summer 2000)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Blythe, Hal, and Charlie Sweet. “Ellison's ‘King of the Bingo Game.’” Explicator 58, no. 4 (summer 2000): 218-20.

[In the following essay, Blythe and Sweet argue that Ellison's use of juxtaposition in “King of the Bingo Game” “makes more poignant the gap between white and black America in the 1930s.”]

Critics have long recognized symbolism as one of Ralph Ellison's favorite devices. However, a lesser-known technique, juxtaposition, illuminates the racism theme so prominent in his classic short story “King of the Bingo Game.” By contrasting the main character's major fantasy with his real-life situation, Ellison makes more poignant the gap...

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Shelly Eversley (essay date fall 2001)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Eversley, Shelly. “The Lunatic's Fancy and the Work of Art.” American Literary History 13, no. 3 (fall 2001): 445-68.

[In the following essay, Eversley maintains that “King of the Bingo Game” reflects Ellison's increasing interest in psychology and his support of a psychiatric clinic in Harlem.]

It was as though I had entered a haunted wood wherein every detail of scene, each thought and incipient action, sprang together and became endowed with a surreal and sinister significance. Almost everything about me seemed bent upon contributing to my growing sense of the irrational disorder of life …


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Troy A. Urquhart (essay date summer 2002)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Urquhart, Troy A. “Ellison's ‘King of the Bingo Game.’” Explicator 60, no. 4 (summer 2002): 217-19.

[In the following essay, Urquhart discusses the significance of naming in “King of the Bingo Game,” which “suggests that the relationship between white and black remains a relationship between colonizer and colonized.”]

In her essay “Playing in the Dark,” Toni Morrison asserts that in a “wholly racialized society” “there is no escape from racially inflected language” (927). In a postcolonial view of American society, this assertion suggests both that the dichotomous relationship between the colonizer and the colonized is inescapable...

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Raymond A. Mazurek (essay date fall 2002)

(Short Story Criticism)

SOURCE: Mazurek, Raymond A. “Writer on the Left: Class and Race in Ellison's Early Fiction.” College Literature 29, no. 4 (fall 2002): 109-35.

[In the following essay, Mazurek examines the key themes of class and race in Ellison's Flying Home and Other Stories and argues that these early short stories offer insight into his leftist political ideology as well as his growth as a writer.]

Eight years after his death, Ralph Ellison's work is undergoing a reassessment. Invisible Man, the only volume of fiction Ellison published during his lifetime, has long been recognized as a major novel; indeed, it has been named as the most significant post-1945 U.S....

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Further Reading

(Short Story Criticism)


Callahan, John F. Introduction to Flying Home and Other Stories, by Ralph Ellison, edited by John F. Callahan, pp. ix-xxxviii. New York: Random House, 1996.

Contends that Flying Home and Other Stories chronicles “Ellison's discovery of his American theme.”

Nadel, Alan. “Ralph Ellison and the American Canon.” American Literary History 13, no. 2 (summer 2001): 393-404.

Argues that although Flying Home and Other Stories “will be of interest to Ellison scholars because it identifies a body of concerns and images that inform Ellison's entire opus, it reveals little of the rich...

(The entire section is 361 words.)