Quintus Curtius Rufus (KOORT-see-oos REW-fuhs) is the only Roman historian of the first century c.e. besides Marcus Velleius Paterculus whose work has largely survived. The details of Curtius’s life and the exact date of his work are disputed. Most likely a rhetorician or a politician during the reign of Claudius (r. 41-54 c.e.), Curtius wrote Historia Alexandri Magni (first and second centuries c.e.; History of Alexander the Great, 1553) when he was older, in the early years of Vespasian’s reign (r. 69-79 c.e.). Written originally in ten books, but now lacking Books 1 and 2 and sections of Books 5, 6, and 10, Curtius’s work blends history and biography and is divided into two parts linked by the themes of “fortune” and “rule.” In the first half, Alexander, in contrast with Persian monarch Darius III, appears to be the righteous commander. Yet, once an omnipotent ruler, he becomes progressively more arrogant, and as a result, his good fortune turns against him so that he eventually becomes a tyrant, a duplicate of Darius.