Places Discussed

(Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)

*St. Petersburg

*St. Petersburg. Capital of Russia at the time in which the novel is set. The main characters of the novel, the poor clerk Makar Dievushkin and the seamstress Barbara (Varvara) Dobroselova with whom he corresponds, are denizens of one of the shabbier districts of the large city. As a consequence, the story provides only limited views of other sections of the capital. Makar’s letters to Barbara are filled with descriptions of the grubby, impoverished areas of the city, and it becomes clear that this gloomy cityscape has a woeful impact on the psyche of those who dwell in it. Makar’s presentation of city life focuses on three sites: his apartment, the streets through which he walks, and the office in which he works. His entire life seems circumscribed by these three realms.

In his descriptions of the people he encounters on the streets of the city, Makar again singles out the poor and the downtrodden. He finds the faces of the artisans and tradesmen frightening and depressing. In a long passage reminiscent of passages from Honoré de Balzac and Charles Dickens, Makar describes the pitiful sight of a young boy begging those passing by for help for himself and his dying mother. The boy is constantly rebuffed, and Makar foresees a grim future for him. Over the course of the novel, as the seasons change from spring to autumn, growing cold and darkness heighten the somberness of the St. Petersburg scenes that Makar describes.

Makar’s apartment

Makar’s apartment. Makar’s home is a crowded St....

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(Great Characters in Literature)

Breger, Louis. Dostoevsky: The Author as Psychoanalyst. New York: New York University Press, 1989. Contains a chapter on Poor Folk and several chapters of biography. Discusses the symbols and associations of the novels.

Jackson, Robert Louis. Dostoevsky’s Quest for Form: A Study of His Philosophy of Art. 2d ed. Bloomington, Ind.: Physsardt Publishers, 1978. Considers the contradiction between Dostoevski’s working aesthetic and his higher aesthetic of true beauty. A mature and helpful study for the serious Dostoevski reader.

Leatherbarrow, William J. Fedor Dostoevsky. Boston: Twayne, 1981. Includes a biographical sketch and chronology of Dostoevski. An excellent guide for the study of Dostoevski. Commentary on Poor Folk and other early work.

Mackiewicz, Stanislaw. Dostoyevsky. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1947. Examines the women of Dostoevski’s novels and the relevance of the loves of Dostoevski’s life to his work. Contains biographical information as a reference to the novels.

Miller, Robin Feuer. Critical Essays on Dostoevsky. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986. Contains an essay by Tolstoy and criticism and commentary on Dostoevski up to the twentieth century. A very broad spectrum of the material available on Dostoevski and how he and his novels have been perceived.