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What is the difference between the British Parliament and the US Congress?

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Differences between the British Parliament and the US Congress include that Congress is bicameral while Parliament is not and that Congress is largely separate from the executive function of the US government while Parliament plays a major role in the executive branch.

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In the British Parliament, the party that governs is, by convention, the one that can command majority support in the House of Commons. Once that majority is secured, the government is entitled to propose whatever legislation it wishes. In the United Kingdom, Parliament is sovereign and there exists no other institution with the power to strike down legislation in the same way as the US Supreme Court. The British constitution is unwritten, and so there is no mechanism by which judicial review may be used to void Acts of Parliament. English courts can certainly rule government actions unlawful, but it cannot strike down legislation.

Both houses of Congress are wholly elected. In the United Kingdom, however, this only applies to the lower house, the House of Commons. The unelected House of Lords—the upper chamber in the UK Parliament—can certainly delay legislation and inflict defeats on the government of the day. However, if needs be, the government can always enforce the Parliament Acts, which ensure that the will of the democratically-elected House of Commons will eventually prevail.

Unlike the United States, there is no separation of powers in the British system of government. All members of the government are either members of parliament (MPs) or members of the House of Lords. In the United States, the executive is strictly separated from the legislature, and so senators and members of Congress cannot serve in the executive branch and vice versa.

The role of the monarch is arguably the greatest difference between the two systems. However, that role is purely formal; the monarch reigns but does not rule. All Acts of Parliament must be given the Royal Assent before becoming law. But this is a mere formality and is never refused. Nevertheless, it's a notable feature of the British system that the government of the day is known as Her Majesty's Government (or His Majesty's Government when there's a king on the throne), and members of that government are known as Ministers of the Crown. This provides another example of overlap between the executive and the legislature in the British constitution.

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The differences between the British Parliament and the U.S. Congress are substantial.  The British system of government provides much greater power to the majority party than exists in the American system of government.  In the United States, presidents are elected independent from congressional elections, and serve independent from the legislative branch of government.  The U.S. Constitution independently establishes each of the three branches of government with the intent that no one branch can exercise undue levels of influence in the running of the federal government.  The president can, then, represent a political party different from the majority parties in the two houses of Congress.  In Britain, the prime minister is elected from among the majority party in the House of Commons, the main legislative institution in that country, the House of Lords being more ceremonial.  Whatever political party constitutes the majority in Parliament selects the prime minister.  The prime minister, in turn, selects his or her cabinet officials from within his or her party's membership in Parliament.  In other words, there is no real separation of powers there.  

The U.S. Congress, per the Constitution, has two chambers both of which wield considerable power and the composition of which is entirely separate from the other.  One political party can hold the majority in the House of Representatives while another party can hold the majority in the Senate.  The two chambers have overlapping responsibilities but distinctly different levels of authority.  The House, for instance, is vested with responsibility for originating spending bills, and the Senate alone confirms presidential nominations to high-level positions in federal agencies (e.g., the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, etc.).  The Senate, in addition, is the sole legislative body vested with authority to ratify treaties entered into by presidents.

These, then, are the major distinctions between the British Parliament and the U.S. Congress. 

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There are two major differences between these two legislatures.

First, Congress is truly bicameral whereas Parliament is not.  In Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate must agree in order for a law to pass.  The House of Lords, by contrast, cannot block bills except in very limited circumstances.

Second, Congress has no real part in the executive function of the US government.  Congress is a legislative body and is separate from the executive.  The British Parliament, on the other hand, is an integral part of the executive branch.  The government’s ministers, including the Prime Minister, come from the Parliament and remain as members of Parliament even as they act as leaders of the executive branch.

In these ways, Congress embodies the American system of separation of powers while the British Parliament does not.

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