What is a fourteen-line poem called?

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A poem composed of fourteen lines is called a sonnet. There are many different kinds of sonnet (though all have fourteen lines) and the form originated in Italy. The two most popular and widely-used forms are the Petrarchan sonnet, associated with the Italian poet Petrarch, and the Shakespearean sonnet, though there are many other variations, both in Italy and England, and most famous poets have worked within this style. If the form began in Italy, it was truly embraced in England. Many of the most famous poems in the English language were written in sonnet form, including the 154 written by Shakespeare, especially Sonnet 18, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day." Other famous sonnets in English include "How Do I Love Thee" by Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind." 

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