Historical Context

Victoria and Albert
Tennyson is the poet most closely associated with the reign of Queen Victoria, and this poem in particular...

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Literary Style

Iambic Tetrameter
“Proem” is written in quatrains, which are four-line stanzas. It follows the rhyme scheme abba: the word...

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Compare and Contrast

1850s: Great Britain is the world’s political and economic leader.

Today: Since the fall of the Soviet Union in...

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Topics for Further Study

• In 1850, the year that “Proem” was published, Tennyson became the poet laureate of England, replacing William Wordsworth. Research...

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Media Adaptations

The British actor Sir John Gielgud recorded “Proem” and other sections from In Memoriam on an audiocassette titled Stanzas from...

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What Do I Read Next?

• The Norton Critical Edition of Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam contains background and sources, along with critical essays. It was...

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Bibliography and Further Reading

Eliot, T. S., “In Memoriam,” in Tennyson: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Elizabeth...

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(Critical Survey of Contemporary Fiction)

Beetz, Kirk H. Tennyson: A Bibliography, 1827-1982. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1984. An introduction explains the organization of the work. Multiple references to In Memoriam and Arthur Henry Hallam are provided in the lengthy subject index.

Bradley, A. C. A Commentary on Tennyson’s “In Memoriam.” 3d ed. Hamden, Conn.: Arachon Books, 1966. Provides a close study of the poem, showing the relation of each section to others. Confronts difficulties in interpretation. Traces origin, composition, and structure of the eulogy, with other discussion, prior to commentary. Chart of changes in the text, appendix.

Buckley, Jerome Hamilton. Tennyson: The Growth of a Poet....

(The entire section is 267 words.)