The compelling debate between Berniece and Boy Willie at the heart of August Wilson’s The Piano Lesson is a debate over how African Americans should view their ancestors’ tragic experience of slavery. Boy Willie would like to erase the past and focus on the present; he wishes to get rid of the family piano that is so problematically entangled with his family’s embarrassing history of enslavement. He wants to buy land, farm it, and earn his own living; he craves an economic independence enjoyed by few African Americans in the South during the first half of the twentieth century. Moreover, by purchasing the parcel of land on which his ancestors were held as slaves and on which they worked as sharecroppers, Boy Willie believes he will symbolically negate the legacy of slavery: He will own the tract of land on which his ancestors were bound as human property.
The acquisition of land was an important first step for many former slaves and their descendants in their quest to become economically free from the legacy of slavery and to achieve economic and social equality with white Americans. Soon after the Civil War, some American lawmakers proposed various plans to compensate former slaves for their unrequited labor by offering them forty acres of land to farm and a mule to plow it. Such plans were never realized, and millions of slaves and their descendants, like Berniece, moved North toward economic opportunity and away from overt racial repression in the South. Those African Americans who remained in the South often labored for white employers for low wages, never attaining economic empowerment. By acquiring land, Boy Willie believes he can achieve a version of the American Dream.
To Berniece, however, the piano symbolizes her family’s noble endurance...
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