Anthony Trollope’s Phineas Finn, the Irish Member, an example of literature of political reform, has been grouped with George Eliot’s Felix Holt, the Radical (1866), Walter Bagehot’s The English Constitution (1867), Thomas Carlyle’s Shooting Niagara: And After (1867), and Matthew Arnold’s Culture and Anarchy (1869). A portrait of the British government in the early nineteenth century, Phineas Finn has a straightforward plot in which the protagonist during his six years in Parliament eventually acquires the wisdom and courage to act on his convictions. His own character and the particular conflict contribute to his development, in the course of which Trollope is able to make the point that the government is far more dedicated to the status quo than to significant reform.
By novel’s end, the change Phineas has undergone is revealed when he supports legislation proposed by his friend Joshua Monk that will help his native Ireland but simultaneously threaten the political establishment. By doing so, Finn learns that those who act on their convictions and attempt to initiate social change endanger their political careers. Thus, after voting for Monk’s Irish bill, which grants tenants in Ireland specific rights, Phineas loses his seat in Parliament.
Finn’s acquisition of wisdom may be seen as a partial response to those among his acquaintances who seem to hold few personal political beliefs. Barrington Earle, for instance, is opposed to change and despises conviction. It is Earle who encourages Phineas to enter politics in the first place, but when Phineas reveals that he plans to use his vote to serve Ireland and not necessarily the Liberal Party, Earle feels only disgust for him, for he realizes that Finn cannot be immediately useful to him. Earle’s sentiments are echoed by Finn’s countryman and fellow politician Lawrence Fitzgibbon: “I never knew a government yet that wanted to do anything.” For doing nothing, Fitzgibbon is eventually awarded with a secretaryship.
The character who most influences Phineas is Joshua Monk, a member of the cabinet. Monk maintains that individuals should enter politics only as a means of implementing personal convictions. Toward the end of the novel, Monk tells Finn, whose job as an undersecretary has shifted his attention away from Ireland toward North America, that “most probably you know nothing of the modes of thought of the man who lives next door to you.” Monk criticizes his peers for their insensitivity to their constituents. He himself, before proposing before Parliament his Irish...
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