Philip Kindred Dick was born in Chicago in 1928, but he lived most of his life in California. He studied for one year at the University of California, Berkeley, but he did not earn a degree. He held several jobs for short periods, then began writing science fiction with great speed and immediate success, first short stories and then novels. His output slowed markedly at the beginning of the 1970’s, as a result of personal problems, involvement with drugs, strong discontent with American society in the Vietnam era, and a sequence of failed relationships. When he resumed writing, his books were significantly more personal and more propagandist. He died on March 2, 1982, following a stroke.