Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Last Updated September 5, 2023.

Past and Present by Thomas Carlyle is a piece of prose that focuses on the downfall of society because of economic policies and industrialization. In it, Carlyle discusses poverty and greed in modern England, and how the wealthy are regarded as idols to look up to when in reality they are tearing the people apart with their greed.

The book starts with a frank yet flowery discussion in the first section, titled Proem, of the state of England's society. Carlyle speaks of the hundreds of thousands of skilled workers who are unemployed, injured from unsafe work conditions, or barely scraping by because they cannot earn an honest living. When he speaks in the first section of the business owners, he says that their greed is their downfall, like Midas, who was little the better for all the gold he created. Their wealth will do them no good in the end, and it will only harm those around them.

In the second section, Carlyle offers up a hero, or someone to look up to. He tells the story of Abbott Samson, a simple, uninspiring monk from medieval times. Samson is tasked with taking charge of an Abbey, which, upon observation, is in squalor, with a leaking roof and uncaring tenants—he mentions physical and metaphorical rain coming in, meaning the alcoholism and carelessness of the monks who live there. Through nothing but care, attentiveness, and hard work, he reforms the Abbey and makes it a haven, instilling motivation in the other tenants. Carlyle explains that it would do England well to take an attitude of diligence and hard work instead of exploitation and greed.

He follows the story of Samson up with reflection on the political and economic agendas of 19th century England, where the taxes and restrictions have crushed the working class. The wealthy can use these taxes and restrictions to their benefit to exploit them further and get even wealthier. In addition, the political laws give the wealthy an out in that they comply with the law and need not show compassion, because they pay what the law prescribes and nothing more. Unfortunately, what the law prescribes is far too low a sum for the workers to subside on.

Carlyle's work is a reflection and lamentation on the society at large. He discusses God's love and how the people of the day need to have a similar compassion for those around them, as well as the laws and regulations that have worked their way into society like the weeds in the Abbey, choking out the possibility of success for the impoverished working class.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access