The Parnassian Movement Further Reading - Essay

Further Reading

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

Brereton, Geoffrey. "Leconte de Lisle and Heredia." In An Introduction to the French Poets: Villon to the Present Day, pp. 166-77. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.,1956.

Places the Parnassians between the Romantic poets of the early nineteenth century and the Symbolist movement which emerged in the 1880s. Identifies José-Maria de Heredia as the only "pure Parnassian" poet of note, and Leconte de Lisle as "the high priest of La Parnasse."

Denommé, Robert T. "The Elaboration of a Poetic Creed." In Leconte de Lisle, pp. 29-43. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1973.

Details Leconte de Lisle's support and defense of the "art for art's sake" philosophy and his incorporation of the classical aesthetic into the Parnassian movement.

Epstein, Edna. "Themes in Parnassian Poetry." Modern Language Review 65, No. 3 (July 1970): 541-51.

Describes the major ideological themes of the Parnassian movement, stressing the group's formal concerns and their placement of art in opposition to nature.

Harms, Alvin. "Heredia and the Parnassians." In José-Maria de Heredia, pp. 39-51. Boston, Mass.: Twayne Publishers, 1975.

Details Heredia's connection to the Parnassian movement, his literary salons, and his friendship with Leconte de Lisle.

Schaffer, Aaron. The Genres of Parnassian Poetry: A Study of the Parnassian Minors. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1944, 427 p.

Studies the Parnassian movement through the work of its principal figures, grouping them by thematic and philosophical concerns.