In Paradise Lost book 9, what philosophical issues does Lucifer raise compared to Frankenstein's creature?

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Among the issues that John Milton raises in Paradise Lost and Mary Shelley also brings up in Frankenstein are the relationship of God—or a god-like creator—to his creations, and the position of the outcast. While there are strong similarities between the characters of Satan and the creature, the issue of...

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personal responsibility also distinguishes them.

Satan, or Lucifer, is convinced that his ejection from Heaven was unfair. Although on one level he appreciates the bounties of Earth, where he has taken the serpent’s form, he resents them and Man because they remind him of his own losses. Satan is both mournful over his loss of Paradise and envious of the Earth-dwelling Adam and Eve. He does not take personal responsibility for his actions but blames God for ejecting him from Heaven. Satan intentionally commits evil deeds, but he still sees them as God’s fault, not his.

In Frankenstein, the creature (who has learned how to read) compares himself to Satan as Milton depicts him in Paradise Lost. While he first identified with Adam, the creature sees more similarities between his condition and that of Satan.

Many times I considered Satan as the fitter emblem of my condition. For often, like him, when I viewed the bliss of my protectors, the bitter gall of envy rose within me.

The creature understands that he is like humans in almost every respect, including the emotional desires for companionship and community, as he has seen among the De Laceys. He regrets that he is prevented from achieving that full measure of humanity, and because others have removed him from society and because of his appearance, he is "solitary and abhorred." While he speaks of his dislocation and alienation in relation to the actions of numerous people, it is clear that the primary person responsible for his outcast status is Victor Frankenstein. The creature’s understanding of Victor’s role confirms the scientist’s position as a god-like figure. Both in envying humans for what they have and in resenting Victor, his creator—what he terms “the bitter gall of envy”—the creature resembles Satan. He too has committed evil deeds, but unlike Satan he regrets them.

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