How does Iago convince Othello of Desdemona's infidelity?

Quick answer:

Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is cheating and having an affair with Cassio first by manipulating Othello's own insecurities. Second, in Cassio's room, he plants a handkerchief that Othello had given to Desdemona, giving the impression that Desdemona had given the handkerchief to Cassio.

Expert Answers

An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

In act 3, scene 3, Iago suggests to Othello that it is suspicious that Desdemona, a white woman, did not try to marry a white man, somebody of "her own clime (and) complexion," but instead chose to marry Othello, a Black man. In seventeenth-century England, white people were considered superior to Black people, and so interracial marriages were deemed unnatural. Indeed, Iago suggests that Desdemona's choice to marry Othello, a Black man, points to something "unnatural" in her character. By this, Iago means to imply that Desdemona is not to be trusted. Iago also reminds Othello that, according to the social hierarchy of the time, he, Othello, is inferior to Desdemona because of their respective skin colors. In this way Iago plants seeds of doubt in Othello's mind—doubts about Desdemona's fidelity and doubts about his marriage.

Once Iago leaves the stage, Othello laments that

I am black
And have not those soft parts of conversation
That chamberers have.

From this, we can infer that Othello, at least to some degree, believes the contemporary racist stereotypes about Black people. He believes that because he is Black, he is inferior. This insecurity is what makes him vulnerable to Iago's suggestions. Indeed, it is this fundamental insecurity that Iago manipulates to help him convince Othello that Desdemona could be unfaithful. It is by manipulating this insecurity in Othello that Iago convinces Othello that it would only be natural for Desdemona to be unfaithful and exchange him, a Black man, for a white man like Cassio.

After Othello demands "ocular proof" from Iago, meaning proof that he can see with his own eyes, Iago decides to give him that proof in the form of a handkerchief. He gets hold of a handkerchief that Othello has given to Desdemona, and he plants this handkerchief in Cassio's room. He then engineers a scenario in which Othello sees Cassio with the handkerchief, and from this moment on, Othello is convinced. Othello believes that Desdemona has given this handkerchief to Cassio as a sign of her love for him. This handkerchief is the final proof that Othello needs, and it drives him mad. He loses all of his ability to think rationally, and he becomes all the more easy for Iago to manipulate.

Approved by eNotes Editorial
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago manipulate Othello?

At the beginning of the play, Iago divulges his vengeful and maliciously devious intention to manipulate and mislead Othello, his so-called friend. He tells Roderigo, "I follow him to serve my turn upon him." He means that he intends to mislead Othello by continuing to act as his trustworthy and obedient agent while, in fact, plotting against him.

Iago and Roderigo later successfully demonize Othello by convincing Brabantio that the general has abducted his beautiful daughter, Desdemona. Brabantio is driven to fury and decides to have Othello arrested for such an ignominy. At this point, Iago informs Roderigo that he has to leave and join Othello to further convince the general of his support. He tells Roderigo:

Yet, for necessity of present life,
I must show out a flag and sign of love,
Which is indeed but sign. 

Iago's action in this regard epitomizes the nature of his strategy, which is to convince the general of his total commitment. In this way, Iago will not only retain Othello's trust but also deepen his leader's belief in him. 

In scene 2, Iago tells Othello about his supposed anger at Brabantio for insulting the general and states that he could hardly bear listening to the senator's diatribe. To further confirm his loyalty, Iago later challenges Roderigo to a duel when the latter arrives in the company of Brabantio and others to accost Othello. Iago's attitude certainly convinces the general that his loyalty lies with him.     

In act 2, scene 3, Iago and Roderigo's plot to have Cassio demoted is successful when Othello dismisses the young lieutenant from his service. Iago advises the distraught soldier to sequester Desdemona's help for reinstatement. It is Iago's sly intent to use Cassio to further his malicious plan by cleverly intimating to Othello that Cassio and Desdemona are having an affair.

Iago's first opportunity to implicate Cassio occurs in scene 3 of act 3 when, upon seeing Cassio trying to slip away surreptitiously after consulting Desdemona, he remarks: "Ha! I like not that." On hearing the comment, Othello wishes to know what he has said. Iago feigns ignorance.      

When Othello asks whether he is correct in believing that he has just seen Cassio walking away from his wife, Iago replies that he cannot believe that it could have been Othello's ex-lieutenant who "would steal away so guilty-like, seeing you coming." Iago's careful diction is loaded with innuendo and suggests that Cassio has done something wrong. Othello is, of course, annoyed when Desdemona later tells him that she has been speaking to Cassio.       

Iago has now cunningly baited Othello and proceeds to prey on the general's insecurities through further insinuation. He picks Othello's mind and provides him little bits of perfidious information by asking about Cassio's previous associations with  Desdemona. Furthermore, he plays on the general's mind by being evasive. Iago drives Othello to suspicion by suggesting that there is something untoward about Cassio's relationship with Desdemona.

Receive it from me. I speak not yet of proof.
Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio;
Wear your eye thus, not jealous nor secure:

He also preys on the general's ignorance about Venetian customs and hints that Venetian wives are wont to have secret adulterous affairs. By deliberately speaking about jealousy, Iago is, in fact, encouraging the general to be jealous.

At the end of act 3, scene 3, Iago tells Othello a blatant lie by mentioning an incident in which Cassio supposedly declared his passion for Desdemona. He states that he and Cassio had been sharing a bed when the soldier, while having a dream, attempted to mount him, mentioning Desdemona's name. Iago's coup de grace comes in the form of Desdemona's handkerchief which his wife, Emilia, gives to him. He plants it in Cassio's room and later uses it as proof of Desdemona and Cassio's iniquity. He tells the general that he has seen Cassio wipe his beard with it.

Othello is so overwhelmed that he vows to take revenge on both his wife and Cassio. Iago uses the opportunity to show his purportedly unquestionable allegiance and kneels. He swears to do whatever his general commands. Othello asks him to kill Cassio within three days while he takes care of Desdemona. He then names Iago his lieutenant.

In act 4, scene 1, in his final act of supreme manipulation, Iago manages to convince Othello that Cassio is speaking about Desdemona while the general eavesdrops on his and Cassio's conversation about Bianca, a prostitute who is in love with Cassio. Cassio speaks about Bianca disdainfully. 

When Bianca arrives later, Othello is even more convinced when she expresses anger at Cassio for having dared to ask her to work on a handkerchief (Desdemona's) which he had given her. Othello has now had his "ocular proof." In his later conversation with Iago, he promises to chop Desdemona "into messes" or poison her, but he is persuaded by his lieutenant to strangle her in her bed. 

Iago's manipulation culminates in the tragedy which sees Desdemona, Emilia, Roderigo, and Othello die.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago manipulate Othello?

Iago first manages to convince Othello that he is trustworthy. He shows his contempt for Othello when he says in Act I that he will lead Othello tenderly by the nose, "as asses are." We see that Iago's strategy is working by Act II, for Othello says of this most deceitful man: "Iago is most honest."

Because Iago has won Othello's trust, he is able to cast aspersions on others. He says in Act III, with complete cynicism, "men should be what they seem," through this implying that Cassio might be involved with Desdemona.

Iago works relentlessly throughout the play to destroy Othello's happiness. Sensing Othello's insecurity as a middle-aged black man married to a much younger woman, and projecting his own conviction that women are inherently unfaithful, he is able to use suggestion and innuendo to lead Othello to the false conclusion that Desdemona has betrayed him.

One way he does this is to contrive to have Othello overhear Cassio deriding his mistress, Bianca, while leading Othello to believe Cassio is talking of Desdemona. But, in actuality, it is not one incident, but a steady drip of Iago's falseness and innuendo that weaves a web of deceit around Othello.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago manipulate Othello?

Act 3 Scene 3 is known as “the seduction scene” (or “the manipulation scene”) because here Iago tricks Othello into believing that Desdemona is having a love affair with Cassio.  Iago and Othello enter just before Cassio leaves, hearing the tail-end of the conversation. Iago says, “Ha! I like not that.,”  which triggers a back and forth repartee between Iago and Othello that is like a dance:  Iago drops a hint or uses a tone suggesting a relationship between Desdemona and Cassio, Othello asks what he means by the comment, Iago then demurs, only for Othello to demand more information, seemingly dragging it out of Iago while all the while it is Iago leading this dance.  Iago’s skills at manipulation result in tremendous irony, for we the audience know what Iago is up to, but Othello seems like a dupe in not understanding what seems to us obvious manipulation.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago manipulate Othello?

Like a true evil genius, Iago plays upon Othello's own fears and reinforces those fears with lies and innuendo (hints).  Iago manipulates the situation so that Cassio is in a position to ask Desdemona for aid.  He then stands by Othello's side, professing concern for his friend, and questioning Desdemona's fidelity because she spoke for Cassio.  By stealing Desdemona's handkerchief, Iago is able to plant it on Cassio and provide evidence for his lies.  Finally, Iago arranges for Othello to overhear a conversation between himself and Cassio so that Othello believes he is hearing a confession.  It all works.  Othello gives in to his fears and his natural jealousy and he kills the woman he loves. 

Most blame Iago for his duplicitious behavior, but some blame should also be laid upon Othello, who chose not to handle the situation with calm reason.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago use his power of persuasion with Roderigo, Brabantio and Othello?

Iago has a persuasive tongue and knows how to emotionally manipulate people. He has an easy time with Roderigo, who is a fool. Roderigo tells Iago he is so upset that Othello married his beloved Desdemona that he wants to drown himself. Iago tells him that romantic love is a ridiculous illusion and only to drown kittens. He manipulates Roderigo by telling him to look instead to the future. He says that Desdemona will soon tire of Othello, so Roderigo should save his money to be able to woo her with jewels and fine gifts. Iago says:

It cannot be that Desdemona should long continue her
love to the Moor—put money in thy purse . . .

When Roderigo gives money to Iago to buy jewels, the money—surprise!—disappears.

Iago does his best to persuade Roderigo to his own sordid view that love is no more than carnal desire and that Roderigo should go after it any way he can, stating:

if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost
thyself a pleasure, me a sport.

With Brabantio, Desdemona's father, Iago uses crude language of a black ewe tupping (having sex with) a white lamb to try to put visual images into Brabantio's mind of an animal despoiling his pure daughter. He wants to incite Brabantio's rage so that he will have the marriage annulled—and he succeeds for a time in enraging Brabantio, until Desdemona is able to persuade her father she really does love Othello.

Iago uses the same technique to try to inflame Othello and turn him against Desdemona. He does his best to get Othello to picture the Desdemona and Cassio in bed together having sex. He uses lies and innuendo, as well as the technique of pretending not to want to say—always after dropping hints to make Othello curious. He does manage to set Othello against his wife, with tragic results.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago use his power of persuasion with Roderigo, Brabantio and Othello?

The easiest answer to your question is that he plays upon their weaknesses.

He knows that if he can incite Brabantio's racial ire -- "an old black ram/Is tupping your white ewe," Brabantio will raise all his power and position against Othello.  This might seem an easy feat, but the audience soon learns that Brabantio has been one of Othello's strongest supporters and allies up to learning that Othello has "stolen" his daughter away.  Brabantio accuses Othello of using witchcraft to persuade his daughter to marry him.

Iago uses Roderigo's love for Desdemona against him, stringing him along throughout the opening scenes of the play.  He has Roderigo convinced that Desdemona will be his if he assists Iago in this way and then that.

And finally, it isn't quite Othello's love for Desdemona that he takes advantage of.  Rather, it is Othello's jealousy.  It is hard to say why Othello is so available to jealous thoughts about his wife and Cassio, but it could be that Cassio's race and youth prick at Othello's vulnerabilities in these areas.

So, Iago seems to be a master of manipulation of human nature, using all the characters (as well as Emilia and Cassio) to ultimately serve his fell purposes.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago trick Othello into thinking Cassio was gloating and bragging about his affair with Desdemona?

It's important to note that at this point in the play, Othello is a frothing, jealous madman who is already convinced of Cassio and Desdemona's infidelity and has already sworn to punish them both for it.  So, at this point, Iago is really just taunting him further to make Othello even crazier.

Othello hides, and Iago carefully starts a conversation about Bianca with Cassio.  Bianca is a courtesan/prostitute that Cassio had taken up with.  Not having any idea of Iago's machinations, Cassio laughs uproariously and vulgarly talks about sleeping with Bianca, even making gestures.  Needless to say, Othello thinks Cassio is talking about Desdemona.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Shakespeare present manipulation through Iago in Othello?

Iago is the master manipulator. His manipulations work because people trust him.

Shakespeare presents Iago as the kind of person who performs character assassination through insinuation. He drops a hint that something is wrong; then, when he is pressed, he protests he didn't mean to say anything or that he likes the person in question too much to want to say what he knows. Then, when he is pressed to tell, he lets the curious person drag a lie out of him, as if he is unwilling to betray anyone.

He does this with Othello, pretending that the last thing he wants he to do is to implicate Cassio as Desdemona's lover. Only when Othello insists does Iago tell the lie that, while dreaming, Cassio mistook Iago for Desdemona, flung his leg over Iago's thigh and kissed Iago on the mouth while murmuring that he wished Othello was dead. All of this is an utter fabrication, but it manipulates Othello into a frenzy of jealousy, which was entirely Iago's intention.

It's worth noting that Shakespeare also uses dramatic irony to present Iago's manipulations. Iago is always telling the audience what is really on his mind, so we know what he is doing to innocent people and can only watch in horror as they are duped. It would be interesting to think about how the play would unfold were we not privy to Iago's twisted secrets: would we be just as deceived as the characters?

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Shakespeare present manipulation through Iago in Othello?

Iago manipulates other characters throughout the play to the point where by the end he has destroyed their lives using only words. Iago represents temptation and an appeal to the darker side of human nature. He doesn't commit the deeds himself but merely plants the notion in the minds of others. The very word "Iago" actually means "the planter."

He notices Cassio's weakness for alcohol and plays on this. Like true temptation, he does not create this weakness or force anyone to act on it. He merely finds the weakness and presses on it. This is the way that manipulation works, the way the devil might work. He tips emotions in this particular direction.

He later plays on Othello's jealousy and rage by hinting that Desdemona might be unfaithful. Yes, he creates scant signs of evidence, but truly all he is doing is awakening Othello's existing weaknesses. A calmer and less jealous man would calmly confront his wife and then believe her when it became clear there was very little evidence. The genius of Iago's manipulation is his ability to identify existing weaknesses in others and then press on them to achieve a tragic outcome.

These tragic manipulations are an exploration of human coercion, but are also a much deeper look at human fragility in the face of our darker nature.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago manipulate Cassio after the lieutenant's humiliating dismissal?

After he is dismissed from his position as Othello's lieutenant, Cassio is primarily concerned with his newly-tarnished reputation.  Iago, recognizing Cassio's vulnerability and desperation to win back Othello's favor, decides to council Cassio regarding the best way to reconcile with the general.

Iago's advice, when taken at face value, is good; he advises Cassio to seek Desdemona's help, observing that she always goes above and beyond to help someone who asks her to do so:

She is so free, so kind, so apt so

Blessed a disposition, she holds it a vice in her goodness

Not to do more than is requested.

Iago further describes the influence Desdemona has on Othello, and assures Cassio that all will be well if he follows Iago's suggestions.

At the same time, though, Iago plans to tell Othello that Cassio is "too familiar" with Desdemona--an accusation that he knows will inevitably drive Othello into a fit of jealousy.  At the end of Act 2, Iago justifies his actions in a soliloquy:

And what's he then that says I play the villain?

When this advice is free I give and honest,

Probal to thinking, and indeed the course

To win the Moor again?

Ultimately, Iago's plan is clearly a manipulation of Cassio--as well as the other characters involved.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How does Iago exploit Othello's character to achieve his own end?

Iago exploits many aspects of Othello's character to achieve his own end--making those around him as miserable as he is.

Some characteristics you might consider are the following:

(1)  Othello is trusting:  "He thinks men honest that but seem to be so."  Othello is a good man, and because he is honest and forthright, he sees others in this way.  Iago knows that Othello thinks he (Iago) is honest, and that he trusts Iago's knowledge of people.

(2) Othello is a soldier, a man of action, one who must make decisions quickly.  As a soldier, he would view betrayal as one of the worst offenses.  And as acting head of Cyprus, Othello would view betrayal as an act of treason.  We see Iago using this characteristic when he tells Othello to let Desdemona live.  This type of reverse psychology works just the way Iago had planned, making Othello even more determined to kill her.

(3) Othello  is also a man of absolutes.  He either loves or he hates.  He is not lukewarm.  As he says about himself:  "Away at once with love or jealousy."  Othello's definition of love requires absolute trust.  He cannot simultaneously love and be jealous or suspicious.  So, Iago knows that if he can plant any doubt in Othello's mind about Desdemona's infidelity, he will succeed.

(4) Othello is somewhat insecure about matters of the heart.  While he is excellent as a military man, in domestic matters he is somewhat ill at ease.  Even in act one, Othello apologizes for his speech:  "Rude am I in speech and have not those soft parts of conversation that chamberers have."  Iago points out that Cassio is young, a courtier, "framed to make women false"  -- in many ways Othello's opposite.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

In Othello, how does Shakespeare show the manipulation of Roderigo by Iago?

  • Shakespeare shows the manipulation of Roderigo through Iago's empty promise that Roderigo can have Desdemona's hand if they succeed in their scheme.
Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

In Othello, how does Shakespeare show the manipulation of Roderigo by Iago?

Shakespeare uses various instances throughout the play to illustrate Iago's malice and how easy it is for him to maneuver Roderigo into doing his bidding. We learn from the outset that Iago has some control over Roderigo, especially his money, for Roderigo tells him in Act I, scene 1:

...I take it much unkindly
That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse
As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this.

Through their conversation, we discover that Iago is deeply embittered about the fact that his general, Othello, has appointed an outsider, Cassio, as his lieutenant instead of extending the honor to him, who has been his loyal and trusted servant. He has embraced Roderigo as a friend, more like a puppet, to assist him in avenging his humiliation for Othello's snub. The two are planning to sully the general's name and the idea is to awaken Brabantio, a senator, and inform him that Othello has abducted his daughter, Desdemona, and is at that very moment abusing her.

Iago hopes that this will result in Othello's dismissal and possible imprisonment, which will be an immensely gratifying situation to him. At the same time, he has convinced Roderigo that he will also profit from this malicious venture. Brabantio's address to Roderigo makes it clear that he had been attempting to woo the beautiful Desdemona but has been banished by Brabantio from his house and denied any contact with her. Roderigo is obviously infatuated with her.

We later learn that Iago has been using Roderigo's desire for Desdemona to manipulate the foolish young man, who seems to have more money than common sense. When their plot to have Othello shamed fails hopelessly because Desdemona has come to his defense and expressed her love for him, Roderigo is wholly distraught since Othello was to leave Venice and travel to Cyprus with her. Not only has he lost the chance of wooing her, but she will also be gone—a reality that the lovesick fool cannot bear. He tells Iago that he will commit suicide.

Iago dismisses Roderigo's threat that he will drown himself as a preposterous notion. He urges him to fill his purse with money (at least eight times) so that he may win Desdemona's hand. He tells Roderigo, in part, the following:

cannot be that Desdemona should long continue her
love to the Moor,

...nor he
his to her: it was a violent commencement, and thou
shalt see an answerable sequestration:

These Moors are changeable in
their wills: ... —the food
that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be
to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. She must
change for youth: when she is sated with his body,
she will find the error of her choice: she must
have change, she must: 

if sanctimony and a frail vow betwixt
an erring barbarian and a supersubtle Venetian not
too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell, thou
shalt enjoy her;

Roderigo seeks Iago's assurance that he will hold good his promise to, as it were, deliver Desdemona to him. Iago says:

Thou art sure of me:—go, make money:—I have told
thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I
hate the Moor: my cause is hearted; thine hath no
less reason. Let us be conjunctive in our revenge
against him: if thou canst cuckold him, thou dost
thyself a pleasure, me a sport. There are many
events in the womb of time which will be delivered...

This is the foundation on which Iago's manipulation of Roderigo rests. He promises the desperately infatuated wreck that he will ensure success in his desire to win Desdemona's hand. All that Roderigo has to do is to provide him with money. He should also travel to Cyprus in disguise, where the two of them will plot Othello's cuckolding. Roderigo will have Desdemona and Iago his revenge. Roderigo then sets off to sell all his land and Iago states:

Thus do I ever make my fool my purse:
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane,
If I would time expend with such a snipe.
But for my sport and profit.

Roderigo is a mere plaything in his hands, there for his pleasure, and he intends to get rid of him later.

Iago's manipulation of Roderigo continues later in the play. He informs Roderigo that Cassio and Desdemona are having an illicit affair and that he should be removed. When Roderigo expresses doubt about his assertions regarding Desdemona's virtue, Iago tells him that she is driven by lust and that Cassio is a lecher. He asks him to draw out and anger Cassio, so that he may be dismissed.

shall you have a shorter journey to your desires by
the means I shall then have to prefer them; and the
impediment most profitably removed, without the
which there were no expectation of our prosperity.

The two men succeed in this enterprise and Cassio loses his post. Roderigo, however, loses patience and has no money and wants to return to Venice. Iago tells him to be patient. He later confronts Iago, stating that he feels that he is playing him for a fool. He threatens to approach Desdemona and expose Iago's malice. Iago, however, charms the blustering clod and informs him of a new plan: Othello would be leaving for Mauritania and Cassius would be appointed in his post in Cyprus. Desdemona will leave with Othello, removing her even further from Roderigo. To prevent this from happening, they need to get rid of Cassio. The gullible Roderigo once again takes the bait and promises to assist Iago.

When Roderigo confronts Iago and threatens to expose his scheme, he essentially signs his own death warrant, for, later, after the altercation with Cassio in which the erstwhile lieutenant and Roderigo are both injured, Iago surreptitiously appears and kills Roderigo, thus removing the threat. Later, though, a letter implicating Iago is found on Roderigo's person, which, with Emilia's accusation, leads to his arrest, incarceration and torture.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

How is Iago able to manipulate Othello?Meaning, how does Iago bring him down in Othello?

Part of how Iago is able to manipulate Othello, and most others in the play, is his complete understanding of internal motivation and understanding of others.  Iago reads and understands many of the characters in the play rather well.  He knows very well where Othello's internal weaknesses lie and he is able to exploit them in manipulating Othello into doing what he wants him to do.  The notion of jealousy that lies inside Othello is something that Iago uses to bring down the mighty warrior.  Understanding that this might be due to the fact that Othello is an outsider, of a different religion, and of a different ethnicity, Iago is able to identify that Othello, for all his greatness, is extremely scared and insecure about losing everything.  Reading this well, Iago is able to understand that this doubt is what lies at the heart of all of Othello's success.  Striking at it in different ways is what allows Othello to be manipulated.

Last Updated on
An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

In Othello, elaborate how Iago manipulates other characters and achieve his goal?

Iago always uses the characteristics of his foes against them.  In the case of Othello, clearly his biggest goal of manipulation, he finds a way to use his confidence and his "warlike" abilities against him.  Having ended up on Cyprus and without a foe, Othello loses his great confidence in his abilities as a soldier and a general.

By using the fact that Othello is not as confident in his ability to actually win the heart of Desdemona, Iago prey's on Othello's insecurities.  He knows that Cassio is the darling of the royalty in Venice and so he would be the likely opponent in the contest for Desdemona, also royalty whereas Othello is an outsider and a moor.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access
Last Updated on