Social Sensitivity

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America's involvement in the Vietnam War, particularly from 1964 to 1973, caused much domestic unrest during those decades. Many young people protested against the war, and these demonstrations reached their peak in 1969, when 250,000 people marched in Washington, D.C. A year later, on May 4, 1970, National Guardsmen killed four students at Kent State University in Ohio during a war protest. The mid to late 1960s also saw the rise of the "counter-culture" in the United States. A movement that developed largely as a reaction against the war, the counterculture was made up of young people who called themselves "hippies" or "flower children." Believing that it was possible to build a society based on love, happiness, peace, and freedom, the counterculture rejected materialism and traditional middle-class values. They also protested America's involvement in Vietnam, emphasized spirituality, particularly Asian mysticism, called for a sexual revolution, and advocated the use of psychedelic drugs to expand one's consciousness. A popular slogan of the counterculture was "Make love, not war." It was in 1965 that the American poet Allen Ginsberg introduced the term "flower power" at an antiwar protest in Berkeley, California. This term was used to describe a strategy of friendly cooperation in confronting what the flower children considered the injustices of the day. That same year Timothy Leary, a Harvard professor, published The Psychedelic Reader, in which he wrote that he had experimented with drugs and advised readers to "turn on, tune in, and drop out." In 1966 the International Society for the Krishna Consciousness, founded in India in 1958, was brought to the United States and Canada. The Hare Krishnas rejected materialism and lived communally. In 1968 there were confrontations between the counter culture and the political establishment at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

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Members of the counterculture held a "Festival of Life," during which they protested the war, attended rock concerts, smoked marijuana, had public sex, held beach "nude-ins," and burned their draft cards. Rock 'n' roll was an integral part of the counterculture movement, and in 1967 the first large rock gathering was held in Monterey, California. In 1969 the Woodstock Music and Art Fair, an event attended by 300,000 people, was held on a dairy farm in upstate New York.

During the 1960s Lyndon Johnson, who became president when John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, attempted to build a "Great Society" by passing numerous laws to advance civil rights, help the poor, and protect the environment. In 1965 the Appalachian Regional Development Act, which provided aid to that economically depressed area, was passed, as was the Housing and Urban Development Act, which established a cabinet-level department to coordinate federal housing programs. The Medicare Act provided health care to the elderly, and the Higher Education Act provided scholarships for more than 140,000 needy students. Other legislation passed during Johnson's administration liberalized immigrant laws, provided support for the arts, tackled issues of truth in packaging, and addressed water and air quality.

This period in U.S. history is also known for the civil rights movement. In March 1965, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led a march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, demanding federal protection of blacks' voting rights; the new Voting Rights Act was signed later that year. It abolished literacy tests and other voter restrictions and authorized federal intervention against voter discrimination. Also in 1965, Thurgood Marshall became the first African American to be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. A couple of years later, in 1968, Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

The feminist movement was also influential during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In the...

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