Last Updated on July 29, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 237
- Youth (1903) and Typhoon (1902), both by Joseph Conrad are sea stories with intriguing parallels to Hemingway’s work. It is believed that Hemingway, who read all of Conrad in Paris and Toronto during the twenties, may have consciously or unconsciously used the “central strategy” of Youth when writing The Old Man and the Sea.
- For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) was Hemingway’s last successfully received novel before The Old Man and the Sea, and the only previous Hemingway novel in which a Hispanic background plays a major part. It depicts the struggle of Robert Jordan, an American fighting against the Fascists in the Spanish Civil War to live up to his political and personal ideals without becoming narrowly partisan.
- Islands in the Stream, published posthumously in 1970, is the book, as edited, of which The Old Man and the Sea was originally envisaged by Hemingway as the fourth part. The first three sections were originally called “The Sea When Young,” “The Sea When Absent,” and “The Sea in Being.”
- The Nick Adams Stories (1972) are all Hemingway’s short stories, plus a few story fragments, about this recurring fictional character, from the time he first appeared in the early 1920s as a young boy, to his last appearance as an adult and father in 1933. Although written and published at different times in Hemingway’s life, they are arranged here by Hemingway scholar Philip Young to illustrate Nick’s unfolding life.
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