None of the major characters fully captures the sympathy of the reader in this story of revolutionary fervor, partly, perhaps, because they are symbolic stereotypes borrowed from the American Western: The outlaw (Arroyo), the gunfighter (the gringo), and the schoolmarm (Harriet). The fact that the characters seem to belong to a popular and familiar genre may, however, help to explain the novel’s popular success.
Both Tomás Arroyo and the old gringo are defined by their courage and integrity. The gringo, an erstwhile cynic, is also a would-be idealist trying to rectify the mistakes of a lifetime. He is admirable in his dedication to truth and uncompromising in his determination not to let others be self-deceived. He forces Harriet to admit that she gave herself to Arroyo out of passion and desire. He forces Arroyo to take action by burning the Spanish documents that Arroyo considers his birthright. The gringo’s death is a natural consequence of his actions, but his death is hardly to be pitied, since by his own admission he came to Mexico to die. His death serves a purpose; it puts Arroyo back on the revolutionary track.
If Arroyo’s course is derailed, finally, it is because of Harriet’s vindictiveness, not because of the old gringo. Just as the gringo represents age, wisdom, truth, and integrity, Tomás Arroyo represents unspoiled Mexican machismo. He is a pure revolutionary uncompromised by politics, unlike Pancho Villa, whose...
(The entire section is 514 words.)