What is a problem that the main character in Of Mice and Men encounters and how does he solve it?

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The central problem in Of Mice and Menis found in the difficulties faced by Lennie and George. Specifically, George must solve the problem of how to keep Lennie safe from the world and how to keep the world safe from Lennie. 

At the opening of the book, George and Lennie vaguely discuss the events that caused the two men to be run out of Weed. Later we learn that Lennie (most likely) attacked and killed a woman in Weed. 

George has vowed to take care of Lennie and so helps Lennie escape punishment for his violent mistake in Weed. 

The dream that the men share is representative of a final solution to George's dilemma. If he and Lennie could buy some land of their own, Lennie would have no chance to harm others (innocently or otherwise). Lennie would be sheltered and George's problem would be solved. 

Keeping Lennie safe is not always easy even while George is keeping others safe from Lennie. We see this in the way that Curley picks on Lennie and starts a fight with him. 

Sadly, the final solution to George's problem comes at the end of the book when it is too late to protect Curley's wife from Lennie. There is only one last chance to protect Lennie from the cruelty of the world. George does this by killing Lennie, helping him escape a showdown with Curley and Curley's revenge.

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