silhouette of a man half submerged in water wiht a noose around his neck

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

by Ambrose Bierce

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How does Bierce convince the reader that the protagonist hasn't escaped despite writing otherwise?

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On the contrary, the reader is not convinced that Farquhar is dead.  Why continue reading if this is the case?

In his essay, "'Something uncanny': The Dream Structure in Ambrose Bierce's 'An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge," Peter Stoicheff writes,

Peyton Farquhar's death at the end is a surprise,so carried away are we by his escape, yet it seems somehow presaged by the very description that keeps it, until the story's last paragraph, obscure and unanticipated.

So, while there may be suggestions of Farquhar's death, they are ambiguous enough with the surreptitious switch to objective, rather than omniscient narrator, that the reader accepts the narrative of Farquhar's "awaken[ing]--ages later, it seemed to him." As, in reality, Farquhar's experience is that of the dying in which time--forever a state of the mind anyway--divides infinitesimally into the twenty-four hours of his escape.  The metaphor of the pendulum conveys how Farquar's mind "swung through unthinkable arcs of oscillation."  That is, not only did time slow down, but, as Stoicheff contends, it "opens it from the inside."  In retrospect at the story's conclusion, the reader realizes that the metaphor of the pendulum is the comparison of Farquhar's body swinging as he is hanged, but Bierce is able to create the dream enough that the reader gives it credibility. The amazing parallels between what Farquhar dreams in that turning of time inside out against the reality are what lend verisimilitude to his dream.  And, it is not until the final paragraph, the surprise ending, that the reader is shaken from this dream.

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