Nuruddin Farah 1945–-
Somalian novelist, dramatist, short story writer, and translator.
The following entry presents an overview of Farah's career through 1998. For further information on his life and works, see CLC, Volume 53.
Nuruddin Farah is known as one of the most stimulating contemporary prose writers in Africa. His works typically address the theme of individual freedom in the face of arbitrary power that is relevant to Africans and non-Africans alike. Farah's novels demonstrate a facility with poetic language and great intellectual depth, and frequently focus on political and social issues in his homeland of Somalia, a nation in the Horn of Africa. While Farah's work contains an undeniable political element, he does not preach a particular political vision for his nation. Farah's experiences as a young person in Somalia give his writings an international appeal. The history of colonization and border conflicts in Somalia, coupled with Farah's travels and educational opportunities, gives him access to a wide variety of cultures and enables him to write about Somalia with a detached perspective. The rich oral culture in Somalia and Farah's command of several languages also make his writing unique. Farah's novels are noted for their poetic and symbolic nature, and for their epic and satirical elements as well.
Farah was born in Baidoa in 1945, which at the time was known as the Italian territory of Somalia. The Italian and British territories were united to form the country of Somalia in 1960. Growing up, Farah learned Somali, Amharic, and Arabic, then Italian and English. He worked for the Somalian Department of Education and subsequently left for India, where he studied literature and philosophy at the University of Chandigarh. While in India, Farah wrote several plays in addition to his first novel, From a Crooked Rib （1970）. Farah returned to Somalia in 1969, the same year that the Soviets backed General Siyad Barre in a bloodless coup to take over Somalia's government. Farah became critical of Siyad Barre's regime, a sentiment he expressed in several of his novels. In the mid-1970s, Farah moved to England to study theater. Upon the publication of A Naked Needle in 1976, he was warned not to return to Somalia or he would be jailed. He moved to Italy, where he continued writing plays, short stories, and novels. Farah's works have earned him the English Speaking Union Prize and the Neustadt Prize.
From a Crooked Rib examines the plight of women in traditional Islamic societies through the eyes of a young village girl, Ebla, as she struggles with issues of female circumcision, arranged marriages, and polygamy. A Naked Needle, a more introspective novel, focuses on protagonist Koschin's search for self-fulfillment and freedom within the political and social upheaval of contemporary Somalia. Koschin, a teacher who studied in England, struggles to remain free from all social, political, and personal obligations. Farah's next three novels are more overtly political. This trilogy, later published as Variations on the Theme of an African Dictatorship (1992), presents a picture of life under a dictator, including the suspicion and fear that plagues those living in a fascist state. Sweet and Sour Milk （1979） recounts the repressive military regime of Somalia but does not assert a specific ideological position. In this novel, Loyaan tries to discover the truth behind his twin brother Soyaan's mysterious death. In addition to suffering the loss of his brother, he must watch as the government which may have murdered Soyaan usurps his image for propaganda. Sardines （1981） also looks at the problems of the military regime but again fails to promote an ideological stance. In addition, Farah again addresses women's struggles through his main character, Medina, and her suffering at the hands of the government, her husband, and her mother-in-law. The narrative of Close Sesame （1982） is told through the eyes...
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