Other Literary Forms
Although Nikos Kazantzakis himself always regarded The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel as his crowning achievement, he has received international acclaim primarily as a novelist; in addition, he is recognized in his own country and to a lesser extent throughout Europe as a playwright, essayist, translator, and writer of travel books. His travelogues of Russia, Spain, and Great Britain combine vivid description with political and cultural commentary. A prolific translator, he has provided his countrymen with modern Greek renditions of many Western writers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Jules Verne, Charles Darwin, Henri Bergson, and Dante. Kazantzakis collaborated on a modern Greek translation of Homer’s Odyssey (c. 800 b.c.e.; English translation, 1614) and Iliad (c. 800 b.c.e.; English translation, 1611). Kazantzakis’s published novels include Toda-Raba (1929; English translation, 1964); De tuin der Rotsen (1939, better known as Le Jardin des rochers; The Rock Garden, 1963); Vios kai politeia tou Alexe Zormpa (1946; Zorba the Greek, 1952); Ho Christos xanastauronetai (1954; The Greek Passion, 1953, also known as Christ Recrucified); Ho Kapetan Michales (1953; Freedom or Death, 1956; also known as Freedom and Death: A Novel); Ho teleutaios peirasmos (1955; The Last Temptation of Christ, 1960; also known as The Last Temptation); Ho phtochoules tou Theou (1956; Saint Francis, 1962).