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(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

“The things we as women know best,” Norman has explained, “have not been perceived to be of critical value to society.” The mother-daughter relationship is a “perfect example of that.” At the play’s outset, the middle-aged Jessie announces to her mother, Thelma, that she is going to kill herself. Norman has described the ninety minutes that follow as “the fight of their lives.” Thelma exhorts, cajoles, and pleads with Jessie to abandon her plan. Jessie remains implacable. She feels trapped in the house she and Thelma share. Her husband has abandoned her; her son is a delinquent. She blames her epileptic fits for her failings as a wife and mother and for her inability to hold a job. She also blames the epilepsy—considered emblematic by critics of the plight as a woman in society—for rendering her unconscious and out of control, to be handled and observed by others.

Jessie has not felt in charge of her life, but she takes charge of her death. At the play’s opening, she is collecting old pillows and towels to minimize the mess when she shoots herself. Such meticulousness indicates Jessie’s need for control, and is ironic in view of the violence of the act she is planning.

Not until Norman heard an audience laugh at its dark humor during a reading of the play did she have confidence of its acceptance. Her husband at the time, Dann Byck, Jr., produced ’night, Mother for its Broadway run, the personal nature of the project causing Norman to want to keep it in the family. The play won four Tony nominations, including best play, and a Pulitzer Prize in 1983. A film version, scripted by Norman, appeared in 1986.

Critical discussion has focused on the issue of suicide in the play, but its feminism has also been debated. Some feminists condemn ’night, Mother for perpetuating the stereotype of the self-destructive woman. Others praise it for highlighting the struggle of women like Thelma to relinquish their hold on adult children. “We all lose our children,” Norman, a mother of two, has remarked: “You think for a lifetime they belong to you, but they are only on loan.” Regarding the violence in the play, Norman has commented that women “are not afraid to look under the bed, or to wash the sheets; we know that life is messy.”


(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

On Saturday night, while Mama hunts for her sweets, Jessie rummages for towels and garbage bags and searches the attic for her father’s gun. Jessie tells Mama that she wants the gun for protection. Mama, convinced that there are no criminals near the out-of-the-way country house where they live, thinks Jessie is foolish. Jessie eventually tells Mama of her plan to commit suicide. At first Mama thinks that Jessie, an epileptic, is ill, but Jessie feels fine physically. Then Mama says that the gun is broken, but Jessie proves that it is in good condition. She had gotten bullets by tricking her brother Dawson into believing that she was watching out for prowlers. Desperate, Mama threatens to call Dawson, but Jessie still would shoot herself before he arrived. Mama suggests calling for the ambulance driver, whom Jessie likes. Jessie, however, insists that she wants the night alone with Mama.

Mama tries to convince Jessie that normal people do not commit suicide, but Jessie wants to die and escape to a place of quiet nothingness. Unable to convince Jessie that suicide is immoral, Mama tries to gain control by insisting that Jessie cannot commit suicide in Mama’s house. Trying another tactic, Mama asks Jessie if she wants to stay around to see what she would get for her birthday. The presents turn out to be predictable and not what Jessie wants.

Jessie plans the whole evening and makes a list of things she wants to do. Mama thinks that Jessie might be trying to escape her family, but Jessie is not committing suicide simply to get away from Dawson, her meddlesome brother, or Ricky, her delinquent son with whom she is unable to communicate. Jessie admits that she does not like her life with...

(The entire section is 2,188 words.)