Nathaniel Hawthorne Additional Biography

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

When Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1804, the United States was new and unformed. In New England, where his family...

(The entire section is 479 words.)

Biography

(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Although Hawthorne seems preoccupied with sin and guilt, he was far from being a fire-and-brimstone preacher. He believed that God is a spirit pervading all creation and that human failings are punished by natural processes. He did not believe in Heaven and Hell except as symbols of the happiness or suffering that people produce through their own actions. Hawthorne’s ghosts and demons are merely psychological symbols with interesting dramatic and artistic potentialities. This shy, hypersensitive writer had an iron will which enabled him to endure loneliness, discouragement, and financial hardship for the sake of his art. His life and work set a lasting example for American writers.

Biography

(Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

It is fitting that Nathaniel Hawthorne’s birth in 1804 came on the Fourth of July, for, if American writers of his youth were attempting a literary declaration of independence to complement the successful political one of 1776, Hawthorne’s fiction of the 1830’s, along with Edgar Allan Poe’s poetry and fiction and Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essays and lectures of the same decade, rank as the fruition of that ambition.

Undoubtedly his hometown of Salem, Massachusetts, exerted a powerful shaping influence on his work, even though his sea-captain father died when Nathaniel, the second of three children, was only four and even though Nathaniel did not evince much interest in the sea. No one could grow up in Salem...

(The entire section is 554 words.)

Biography

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1804. On his father’s side, Hawthorne was descended from William Hathorne, who settled in Massachusetts in 1630 and whose son, John, was one of the judges in the 1692 Salem witchcraft trials. Hawthorne’s father, a sea captain, married Elizabeth Clarke Manning in 1801. His mother’s English ancestors immigrated to the New World in 1679; her brother, Robert, a successful businessman, assumed responsibility for her affairs after Captain Hathorne died of yellow fever in Suriname in 1808.

After his father’s death, Hawthorne, his two sisters, Elizabeth Manning and Maria Louisa, and his mother moved into the populous Manning household, a move that on one...

(The entire section is 1016 words.)

Biography

(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Born in Salem, Massachusetts, Nathaniel Hawthorne grew up surrounded by reminders of the town’s infamous past and his own family’s role in the Quaker persecutions and witch trials of the seventeenth century. By the time he was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1825, he had resolved to return to Salem, become a writer, and investigate the influence of the Puritan past on nineteenth century New England.

Hawthorne was a fundamentally reclusive person who avoided revealing himself to others except through the masks of his fiction. His persistent brooding over the historical sins of New England and his fascination with guilt and secrecy dominate his work as early as Twice-Told Tales, his first short-story...

(The entire section is 429 words.)

Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the greatest of all American fiction writers, was descended from William Hathorne (the w was added by Nathaniel himself while he was in college), who came to Massachusetts Bay from England with John Winthrop in 1630 and as a magistrate ordered the whipping of a Quaker woman in Salem. William’s son John was one of the three judges who presided over the Salem witch trials in 1692. These men were important figures in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; they were also guilty of great crimes. The family fortunes had declined since those early days—Nathaniel’s father was a ship captain who died in a distant port when the boy was only four years old—and Nathaniel, who was...

(The entire section is 1223 words.)

Biography

Born in Salem, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1804, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s ancestors were some of the first Puritans to settle in New England. His great-grandfather had officiated at the Salem Witch Trials, causing feelings of guilt that provided a theme for many of his stories. Hawthorne attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine (1821–1824), along with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and at this time he began writing short stories for magazines, including some in his first collection, Twice-Told Tales (1837). Not earning sufficient money by writing, Hawthorne had several jobs, including working at the Salem Custom House. For one year, he lived at the experimental transcendentalist community Brook Farm, along with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. After marrying painter and transcendentalist Sophia Peabody in 1842, he moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts, where he began some of his most prolific writing. He named his second collection of short stories, which includes “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” after this house. Hawthorne and his wife had three children. With the publication of The Scarlet Letter in 1850, he established himself as an important American author. Two years later, he sailed to England to work as U.S. Consul. During this time, he traveled throughout Europe, and he wrote The Marble Fawn while in Italy. After returning home, Hawthorne wrote sketches of his travels collected in Passages From Notebooks. He died on May 19, 1864, and was buried in the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord among other writers of his generation, including Emerson and Thoreau.

Biography

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1804. He attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine (1821-1824), and at this time began writing short stories for magazines, including some of them in his first collection, Twice Told Tales (1837). Although he is sometimes considered by critics as an “antitranscendentalist” because of his preoccupation with evil, the dangers of sexuality, and the hypocrisy of human beings, he did live for one year at the experimental transcendentalist community Brook Farm along with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Although his work does not celebrate nature as theirs does, it often does use it as a vehicle to explore issues of art and human behavior....

(The entire section is 244 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

The son of a ship captain, Nathaniel Hathorne, and Elizabeth Clarke Manning, Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on Independence Day in 1804 in...

(The entire section is 461 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts on July 4, 1804 to an esteemed family headed by Nathaniel Hathorne and his wife,...

(The entire section is 431 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

Nathaniel Hawthorne Published by Gale Cengage

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s life seems characterized by continued efforts to make enough money to support himself and his family interspersed...

(The entire section is 794 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Hawthorne was an American fiction writer best known for his novel The Scarlet Letter. Born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1804, he was...

(The entire section is 524 words.)

Nathaniel Hawthorne Biography

Considered one of the greatest American writers, Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 – 1864), is a direct product of his New England background. His father was a sea captain, who died when the boy was only four. Reared in a reclusive setting, Hawthorne became an avid reader, as recorded by the huge number of books he borrowed from the local lending library in Salem, Massachusetts. His uncle sent him to Bowdoin College, where Hawthorne became good friends with the future president, Franklin Pierce, and future poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Hawthorne wrote, but destroyed most of his early writings; however, by the time he was 33, his writing style and content had matured. Critics...

(The entire section is 195 words.)

Biography

(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Nathaniel Hawthorne was descended from Puritan colonists responsible for persecuting the accused witches of seventeenth century Massachusetts. His sense of guilt over the superstitious cruelty of his ancestors is reflected in much of his writing. His father, a sea captain, died when Nathaniel was only four years old. That the writer grew up without a male role model and was surrounded by adoring female relatives helps to account for his personality, which has been consistently described by biographers as shy, inhibited, narcissistic, and introverted. Ironically, he was an exceptionally handsome young man who was much sought after by the young ladies.

With his widowed mother and his two sisters, Hawthorne had to live...

(The entire section is 1136 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4, 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts, the second of three children born to Nathaniel and Elizabeth Hathorne....

(The entire section is 874 words.)