Book I, Introduction and Chapters 1-10 Summary and Analysis
Book I, Chapter I Summary
The novel opens with the narrator Jim Burden traveling to Black Hawk, Nebraska, where he will live with his grandparents now that he's an orphan. On the way there, the passenger conductor, a friendly man, tells Jim and his traveling companion Jake, his grandfather's new hired hand, about the foreigners going to settle in Nebraska, only one of whom (the titular Antonia, a girl just four years older than Jim) knows a few words in English. It's clear that Jake is disgusted by this influx of foreigners, but Jim withholds judgment, focusing instead on surviving the long, bumpy ride to Nebraska.
Upon arrival, Jim and Jake are met by a man named Otto Fuchs, who drives them out to the farm just west of Black Hawk. Jim notes that Otto looks like he could be a character in the Jesse James book he's been reading during the long trip. Otto has a huge scar across one cheek, half of his left ear is gone, and he has a deep brown tan, along with "the face of a desperado." He drives Jim and Jake in an old straw-filled wagon and covers them with buffalo hides to keep warm. Jim marvels somewhat at the size of the land, feeling very small and "blotted out." He doesn't say his prayers, reasoning that in this landscape, "what would be would be," regardless of his prayers.
Book I, Chapter I Analysis
Cather uses alliteration when she writes that "Jake's experience of the world was not much wider than mine," where "mine" is Jim's.
Jesse James (1847 - 1882). A Confederate guerrilla and bushwhacker, James is best known as a bank robber and gunslinger who terrorized the Wild West for a couple decades. In his final years, he and his gang members were under increasing pressure from the law, and it became difficult for them to remain active. Eventually, James was killed by one of the gang members, Ford, who was hoping for a reward.
Life of Jesse James. Likely, this is a dimestore novel about Jesse James, the famed gunslinger and bank robber.
One example of a metaphor from this chapter is the description of the conductor's gold cufflinks as being inscribed with "hieroglyphics," where hieroglyphics are a metaphor for the symbols and etchings that Jim finds incomprehensible (they aren't, of course, real hieroglyphics).
Jim personifies an engine when he describes it as "panting heavily after its long run," as if it were a person who'd just run a marathon.
The passenger conductor uses a simile when he says Antonia is "as bright as a new dollar." Later, Jim uses a few similes when describing Otto, whose moustache turns up at the corners "like little horns."
Nature. When Jim looks up at the big, Midwestern sky, unridged by mountains, he feels "erased, blotted out" by the incredible size and grandeur of the sky. In comparison to the vastness of nature, Jim feels small and insignificant, and he abandons his prayers for the night, thinking that nature, with all its glory, will be more powerful than any prayer he utters.
Travel. There are many forms of travel in this novel: the journey from east to west, from town to country and country to country, and from one home to another. Jim, an orphan, travels to Nebraska at the same time as Antonia, an immigrant, who has come to America from Bohemia in order to pursue a better life with her family. Antonia's travels, though certainly more arduous and significant than Jim's, get comparatively little attention, and no emphasis is placed on the journey itself.
Xenophobia. Both Jake and the passenger conductor expresses xenophobic views in this chapter, but Jim, who doesn't have strong feelings on the matter, merely parrots their views to prevent a confrontation. Though there will be some other examples of xenophobia in the novel, Jim, as narrator, does not himself approve of this kind of conduct, and he accepts Antonia and the immigrants easily.
Book I, Chapter II Summary
Exhausted by his journey, Jim takes a long nap and is later woken up by his...
(The entire section is 3,842 words.)