What does Ahab's quote "Talk not to me of blasphemy, man; I'd strike the sun if it insulted me" reveal about his character?

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Ahab has no qualms about his words or decisions. As long as his pride is intact, his conscience is going to be guiltless.

We can infer his character's loose conscious when we look at the religious application of blasphemy. Blasphemy is considered an incredibly serious sin against God (see Mark 3:28-30). If someone is not worried about this sin, it is highly unlikely they would be worried about any other sin. He clearly has little religious piety and little conscience.

This sentence also shows his pride, as well as the destructive nature of that pride. Ahab is willing to fight the sun if if insults him. Ahab gives no room for anybody to speak critically about his life, and he will go to any lengths to obtain revenge. This can be self-destructive, considering the actual effect of striking the sun would be death.

This might also be seen as foreshadowing for how Ahab's prideful pursuit of revenge against Moby Dick would result in destruction.

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Most individuals who were living at the time of Captain Ahab and who were religious would have believed that blasphemy was a mortal sin, punishable by condemnation to the everlasting fire of hell. This would be a tremendous punishment to be avoided at all costs.

Captain Ahab, however, did not care about the possible consequences of blasphemy, or any other sin. He refused to suffer insults, challenges to his authority, or arguments against the plausibility of his vendetta against the great white whale. He was willing to risk the fire of hell or the fire of the sun if he was crossed.

Ahab was driven by his obsession with the revenge he wanted to exact from Moby Dick. He demanded of his crew what he demanded of himself - absolute commitment to the achieving of the goal. He had no patience for distractions from the hunt and the fight. He was completely dedicated to the purpose he set for himself.

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