Mircea Eliade (AY-lee-ahd) achieved worldwide recognition for his pioneering studies in comparative religion and the history of religion. In addition, he was a gifted writer of fiction. To a rare degree, scholarship and imaginative literature were interwoven throughout his life. Eliade was born in the first decade of the twentieth century and initially educated in the turbulent era of World War I. From the war’s aftermath emerged a greatly enlarged Romania, incorporating from the demolished Austro-Hungarian Empire the old Roman province of Dacia, with its capital at Bucharest. Eliade began his university studies in the equally fervent 1920’s, amid overtones of resurgent nationalism. From the University of Bucharest, he received a master’s degree in 1928. He was awarded his doctorate in 1932, after graduate study in the more exotic environment of the University of Calcutta.
Though principally an author, he had associate status with the faculty of letters at the University of Bucharest until the outbreak of World War II. In 1937 he edited Scrieri literare, morale si politice de B. P. Hasdeu (literary, moral, and political writings by B. P. Hasdeu). He was sent as cultural attaché with the Romanian legation of King Carol II to London (1940-1941) and then to Lisbon, Portugal, for the Ion Antonescu regime, where he remained until the Soviet occupation of his homeland terminated his status. In 1942 he wrote Salazar i revoluia în Portugalia (Salazar and the revolution in Portugal), a book about a leader whose brand of neutral national socialism he admired. In 1943 he wrote a brief history of the Romanians, whom he identified as the Latins of the East. At the end of the war, he became a displaced scholar at the Sorbonne and, in 1950, president of the Centre Roumain de Recherches, Paris, a post he held until 1955. He was also lecturing intermittently at Ascona in Switzerland, where the Eranos project was focused and from which came an annual yearbook. The psychological priorities of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung made their special impact upon his understanding of the function of myth and symbol in the human personality.
The sudden and unexpected death, in August of 1955, of the leading mind in the history of religions and its methodological theory, Joachim Wach, left...
(The entire section is 941 words.)