Mickelsson's Ghosts

(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 13)

Published just four months before his death in a motorcycle accident on September 14, 1982, Mickelsson’s Ghosts, John Gardner’s ninth novel, was received with considerably less than critical acclaim. Although laudatory notices did appear in the Chicago Tribune and San Francisco Chronicle, most reviewers were sparing in their praise. They found the book ambitious and praised the characterizations and descriptions of settings, but on the whole, they thought the novel seriously flawed: dull at times, ponderously written, melodramatic, indulgent, garrulous, “academic,” distracting in its unassimilated parade of philosophical ruminations, and structurally too diffuse. More important, reviews in such influential periodicals as The New York Times Book Review, The New York Review of Books, and Saturday Review were especially critical and at times even hostile to both the work and its author. The unfavorable response deeply troubled Gardner, who interpreted it as revenge on the part of the literary establishment for his controversial attack on contemporary literature and criticism, On Moral Fiction, published four years earlier.

To a degree, both Gardner and his critics were correct. Mickelsson’s Ghosts is not his best novel. There are factual inconsistencies and occasional lapses in style, but these do not indicate that the book was ill-conceived and carelessly executed; rather, they suggest premature publication, the price Gardner was bound to pay for committing himself to more projects than he or anyone could handle (fiction; librettos; radio plays; editing his literary magazine, MSS; teaching full-time; acting in local theater productions). On the other hand, Mickelsson’s Ghosts is a far better novel than most reviewers were willing to admit. It marks Gardner’s return to the kind of fiction he wrote prior to the publication of his “funhouse” stories in The King’s Indian in 1974. In particular, it recalls The Sunlight Dialogues (1972), the work it most resembles in scope and texture. In both of these long and ambitious works, Gardner weaves together his numerous characters and multiple plots into a unified vision that contrasts with and serves as an alternative to the protagonists’ sense of social fragmentation and spiritual discontinuity.

Broadly considered, Mickelsson’s Ghosts is two novels in one—realistic character study and Gothic thriller—and within this double framework, Gardner pursues a number of ancillary narratives, each with its own setting and cast of characters. The fragmented narrative reflects the chaotic life of Gardner’s troubled protagonist, Professor Peter J. Mickelsson, to whom the reader is introduced in the novel’s marathon 105-word opening sentence. This sentence, like the novel itself, is discursive but by no means artlessly constructed. As in The Sunlight Dialogues, Gardner has devised ways other than linear plot to link various narrative elements together: the seasonal structure (late summer to early spring) which underscores Mickelsson’s spiritual death and rebirth; interlocking networks of imagery and of cause and effect; and parallels between the various plot lines (most notably, between the pollution of the environment and the pollution of man’s spiritual nature).

Although Gardner claims to have based his protagonist on his friend, the poet James Dickey, Mickelsson is in many ways the image of his maker: he experiences a messy divorce after a long marriage; deep feelings of guilt, especially over the separation from his son and daughter; financial difficulties, which include having to pay a vast sum owed to the Internal Revenue Service; and a recent appointment to the faculty of the State University of New York at Binghamton, where he enjoys celebrity status and a reputation as a right wing “pop” philosopher. Interesting as these and other similarities are, Mickelsson’s Ghosts is not primarily an autobiographical novel or, for all its scenes of university life, an academic novel, for Mickelsson is, like all of Gardner’s heroes, representative of the contemporary man who suddenly finds himself in the midst of a crisis of faith, a crisis that is at once personal and cultural, though...

(The entire section is 1760 words.)

Social Concerns

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Each of the subgenres Gardner incorporates in Mickelsson's Ghosts suggests social issues. The mystery story implies a concern with...

(The entire section is 857 words.)


(Masterpieces of American Fiction)

America. CXLVII, October 2, 1982, p. 176.

The Atlantic. CCXLIX, July 1982, p. 94.

Butts, Leonard. The Novels of John Gardner: Making Life Art as a Moral Process. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988. Butts draws his argument from Gardner himself, specifically On Moral Fiction (that art is a moral process) and discusses the ten novels in pairs, focusing on the main characters as either artists or artist figures who to varying degrees succeed or fail in transforming themselves into Gardner’s “true artist.” As Butts defines it, moral fiction is not didactic but instead a matter of aesthetic wholeness.

Chavkin, Allan, ed. Conversations with John Gardner. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990. Reprints nineteen of the most important interviews (the majority from the crucial On Moral Fiction period) and adds one never before published interview. Chavkin’s introduction, which focuses on Gardner as he appears in these and his other numerous interviews, is especially noteworthy. The chronology updates the one in Howell (below).

Cowart, David. Arches and Light: The Fiction of John Gardner. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983. Discusses the published novels through Mickelsson’s Ghosts, the two story collections, and the tales for children. As good as Cowart’s intelligent and certainly readable chapters are, they suffer (as does so much Gardner criticism) insofar as they are concerned with validating Gardner’s position on moral fiction as a valid alternative to existential despair.

Esquire. XCVII, June, 1982, p. 134.

Henderson, Jeff. John Gardner: A Study of the Short Fiction....

(The entire section is 779 words.)