Other Literary Forms

(Critical Edition of Dramatic Literature)

Michel de Ghelderode is known and remembered primarily for his singular, often highly unconventional approach to drama. During the course of his career, however, he also produced several volumes of essays and short stories as well as poetry, most of the latter supposedly written by a fictitious undertaker named Philostène Costenoble.


(Critical Edition of Dramatic Literature)

Described by one drama critic as “our man in the sixteenth century,” Michel de Ghelderode worked for years in solitude and near-isolation toward the perfection of his intensely personal dramatic art. Only after World War II, with the author approaching fifty years of age, did the assembled corpus of his plays even begin to attract critical attention outside his native Belgium, in part as a result of developments in world drama that had rendered Ghelderode’s work suddenly “fashionable.” The now famous “Ostend Interviews” (1951), broadcast first in Belgium, then in France, and later published, brought belated but well-deserved recognition to a highly original practitioner and theoretician of the drama. Even so, Ghelderode died at the age of sixty-three in relative obscurity, achieving only after death the full measure of esteem that had somehow eluded him in life. A final posthumous irony came with the revelation that, had Ghelderode survived until the fall of 1962, he would in all likelihood have received that year’s Nobel Prize in Literature.

More heavily influenced by the plastic arts than by the work of other playwrights past or present, Ghelderode’s dramaturgy nevertheless closely approaches the goal of “total theater” long sought by Antonin Artaud and others. Ghelderode’s plays, set for the most part in late medieval or early Renaissance Flanders, combine evocative poetic language with the scenic powers of Pieter Brueghel, Jan Vermeer, or Ghelderode’s older contemporary James Ensor. Drawing as well on the long and honored tradition of puppetry, Ghelderode bodies forth in his work a resolutely antinaturalistic, often grotesque, yet ultimately realistic personal vision of human nature that has much in common with the later deformations wrought by Samuel Beckett, Arthur...

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(Critical Edition of Dramatic Literature)

Cardy, Michael, and Derek Connon, eds. Aspects of Twentieth Century Theatre in French. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. Provides background of developments in French language theater in the twentieth century. Bibliography and index.

Drake, Sylvie. “Good-Natured Fun with Columbus: Michel de Ghelderode’s Little-Known Version of the Explorer’s Vision Portrays a Gentle Creature Who Is ‘Haunted by the Horizon.’” Review of Christopher Columbus by Ghelderode. Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1992, p. 21. This review of a performance at Stages Theatre Center in Hollywood, California, directed by Florinel Fatulescu, provides an interesting perspective on this play.

Grossvogel, David. Twentieth Century French Drama. 1958. Reprint. New York: Gordian Press, 1967. Contains a chapter on Ghelderode that served to introduce the dramatist to English-speaking audiences.

Parsell, David B. Michel de Ghelderode. New York: Twayne, 1993. A basic biography of Ghelderode that covers his life and works. Bibliography and index.

Willinger, David, and Jeanine Parisier Plottel, eds. Theatrical Gestures: From the Belgium Avant-garde. New York: New York Literary Forum, 1987. This look at avant-garde drama in Belgium contains a discussion of Ghelderode.