The exact date and authorship of this collection of philosophical dialogues and anecdotes have remained a subject of dispute for centuries, but there is no doubt about the existence of the man, Mencius (Mengzi), in the fourth to third centuries b.c.e. Mencius taught students, lectured to the rulers of his time, and expounded his political and moral philosophy in much the same way as most of the Confucians did.
When very young, Mencius lost his father, and his mother worked alone at a weaving loom to support her son. Mencius’s childhood education is said to have been of the ideal kind, and his mother has been held in reverence by the Chinese as an ideal mother. It is said that she was so determined to cultivate her son’s moral integrity at a very early age that she took extreme caution in her own speech and behavior in front of him. Once their landlord slaughtered a hog. When the young Mencius saw it, he asked his mother why. In jest his mother answered that the landlord was preparing a feast for him. Immediately afterward, she regretted her statement; in order to correct her untruthful statement, she sold her badly needed clothing to buy some meat with which she actually served him a good dinner. Another time, she was distressed by Mencius’s fondness for play when she wanted him to concentrate on studies. After some ineffective admonition, she took out a knife and cut the warp on her loom. Because she could no longer weave, the family was without food. This drastic gesture impressed the young boy so much that he never again neglected his studies.
After studying with a disciple of Confucius’s grandson, Mencius emerged in his adult life as a recognized standard-bearer of Confucianism. In his expositions on Confucius’s teachings, however, Mencius ventured much further in metaphysical speculations than his master ever did. From Mencius, Confucianism gained a fully developed theory on human nature and a clear orientation toward idealism.