Themes and Meanings
Mutability and loss are recurrent themes in Justice’s poetry, and “Men at Forty” is no exception. Doors closing, a stair landing in motion, a father’s features becoming discernible in his son’s face, and men being filled with something like the sound of crickets all become intimations of mortality.
Subtly and with originality Justice touches on traditional ways of imagining the human life span: the journey metaphor, for example, was invoked by Dante Alighieri in the opening words of The Divine Comedy (c. 1320), which translate as “in the middle of the journey of our life.” It is also implicit in poems by Robert Frost (“The Road Not Taken,” 1916, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” 1923) and many others. In “Men at Forty,” as has been noted, it is as if men first notice they have embarked on a voyage after they have passed the midpoint of the biblical life span of three score years and ten. The trope of a stage of life being expressed as a time of day, found in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 73 (1609) when the aging speaker says, “In me thou seest the twilight of such day,” becomes, in “Men at Forty,” the aural metaphor of the “twilight sound” of crickets. The commonplace conception of human life as an arc, rising and falling, which is part of a double entendre in the title of Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poem “Spring and Fall: To a Young Child” (1918), is in Justice’s poem suggested by the men at midlife being situated in houses at the top of a slope.
What destination awaits people at the end of their journey through life? The last stanza of “Men at Forty” presents a mystery followed by a certainty. The sound of the crickets is “immense,” as will be the change from life to death, but the poem is ambiguous as to whether that immensity represents something positive or negative. The chirping...
(The entire section is 478 words.)