I respond as someone who does not teach math and who is dyslexic. Numbers do not appear in my head the same way they are displayed on a page. I transpose them (3 and 5, 6 and 8, etc.), do weird things when I try to calculate them, etc. It's a visual problem; I do not view them in my head the same way they are viewed on the page and I then sometimes do weird things with them when trying to do calculations. When I am very tired, I also have trouble with words - the word is in my head but I cannot get it to come out of my mouth because I cannot visualize it; I cannot see the word in my brain. And I constantly reverse numbers (& words), so that I have to write some things down and or will them backwards every time. Funny thing is, if I've written it down, I often don't have to look at it later.
I think this is part of why word-based math problems have always been so difficult for me and why my math scores on standardized tests were always so low. Then one day I discovered a DOS-based computer game called Sherlock. It was the same word-based math problem you see in magazines all the time. A couple hosts a party for 5 other couples who all arrive in different color cars, bring a different food item, etc. You have to solve the problem of which couples are a couple, drove in what car, etc. Only in Sherlock, it's houses, people, road signs, foods, letters, etc. Oh, and most importantly, there are 6,999 iterations of this game. The clues are tiles which, when together, mean two items must be side-by-side, or a triple tile that means one item must be between two other items (or cannot be between them if it's got the circle around it), and so on. By process of elimination, you can solve the puzzle.
By the time I took my GRE (Graduate Record Exam), I had played over 4,000 iterations. When the dreaded math questions came, I quickly realized that some of them were Sherlock in a new skin. I grabbed some scrap paper and start drawing tiles. A number of the questions were about tree nursery plantings. The pine trees couldn't be planted next to that type of tree, etc. I got through these questions fairly quickly and continued converting these word-based math questions into visual tiles throughout the exam. I ended up with the highest math scores I've ever received in my life.
Now, I still have one roadblock in Algebra 3; I get to one point and cannot visualize the problem well enough to grasp the concepts, so I never get beyond that point. But for most other match problems and issues, I have found that if I can find a way to visualize it, I can solve it.
The key is to help the student find a way to unlock what is blocking them. Do they need to see it graphically so they can then express it in words? Do they need to learn how to take simple math problems first and write them out in words? Will their success in that, and lots and lots of practice, help them move to doing them more complex problems?
I think continued variety will help you get more students able to succeed. Use every "trick" you can think of because that next one you try might just be the key to unlocking someone's barrier!