Please see the reference link below. Much of the mathematics will be beyond your current ability (often based on calculus) but a lot is basic algebra and geometry.

A direct reference to the Pythagorean Theorem is made on pp 54-55 in reference to prismatic lenses.

The optometrist must figure out how light is refracted through lenses to find the proper focal length. The diagrams shown deal mostly with vectors, but the information you know about triangles still apply and can be used to calculate "distances" and angles.

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