The Masque of the Red Death Summary

The Masque of the Red Death summary

In "The Masque of the Red Death," a plague known as the Red Death spreads through 14th Century Europe. Prince Prospero decides to isolate a thousand individuals from the upper crust of society in an abbey, but fails to protect them from the contagion.

"The Masque of the Red Death" summary key points:

  1. After spending months contained in the abbey, the courtiers attend a masked ball.

  2. One of the attendees wears a costume that simulates the effects of the Red Death.

  3. Prospero is angered by the mysterious guest’s disguise and demands that he be punished.

  4. Prospero pursues the individual and discovers that he is a literal personification of the Red Death who has now infected the nobles in the abbey.


(Comprehensive Guide to Short Stories, Critical Edition)

The allegorical nature of this very brief and well-known Edgar Allan Poe story is indicated by the fact that its only named character is Prince Prospero and its only real conflict is the symbolic one between Prospero and the Red Death. The Red Death is a mysterious pestilence that has ravaged the countryside; no pestilence has ever been so fatal and hideous. It manifests itself on the victim with bleeding at the pores, especially on the face, and inevitably ends with death in the space of half an hour. After half of his people have died from this plague, Prince Prospero takes many of the knights and ladies of his court into his castle and welds shut all the doors and windows, determined to escape death. In a supreme gesture of self-willed pride, Prospero assumes that “with such precautions the courtiers might bid defiance to contagion. The external world could take care of itself. In the meantime it was folly to grieve, or to think.”

The main action of the story centers on a masked ball given by Prospero, during which those within can forget the reality of death outside. The buffoons, actors, dancers, and musicians who dominate the ball create an inner world hermetically sealed off from external reality: “All these and security were within. Without was the ’Red Death.’” In this very static and stylized piece of fiction, Poe spends approximately one quarter of the story detailing the interior of the ballroom, the primary characteristics of which are seven rooms so arranged that one cannot see them in a long vista, but only one at a time.

Each room has Gothic windows of stained glass, which match in color the decor of the rooms themselves. The order and color of the rooms and windows are blue, purple, green, orange, white, violet, and black. Only in the last room, shrouded in black, does the color of the windows differ from the color of the rooms, for here the windows are blood red. In the corridor outside the windows, a brazier of fire projects rays through the windows to create fantastic appearances within. In the final, or western, chamber, the fire throws such grotesque images through the red windows onto the black curtains that no one wishes to enter it. In this room also is an ebony clock that, when the hour is struck, makes everyone at the ball stop their dancing to listen to the sound in somber meditation or reverie.

Much of the remainder of the story describes the arabesque and grotesque figures who inhabit the rooms, characters who seem less like real people than fancies created by a madman: “There was much of the beautiful, much of the wanton, much of the bizarre, something of the terrible, and not a little of that which might have excited disgust. To and fro in the seven chambers there stalked, in fact, a multitude of dreams.”

The ball reaches a climax at midnight, when, with the striking of the clock, a new presence makes itself known among the masked revelers—a figure dressed in shrouds, whose mask resembles the face of a stiffened corpse dabbled with blood to assume the appearance and type of the Red Death itself. Prospero cries for his courtiers to seize the figure so he might be hanged, but the mysterious guest inspires such awe that no one will touch him. Thus, Prospero himself chases the figure through the six chambers until they reach the final one, in which the prince, in the act of raising a dagger to kill the stranger, falls instantly forward in death himself. When the rest of the revelers seize the figure, they find that the shrouds and the corpselike mask hide no tangible form at all. With this discovery, all the courtiers fall down in death one by one, while the flames of the tripod expire. The story ends with the ominous last line: “And Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all.”

The Masque of the Red Death Summary

(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

The Red Death, a bloodier version of the Black Death, ravages Europe in the early fourteenth century. In response, the feudal overlord Prince Prospero selects a thousand congenial individuals from the upper ranks of the society he rules and isolates them within a lavishly furnished and securely sealed, fortified abbey. There, they plan to enjoy themselves to their hearts’ content while the plague runs its deadly course outside.

After several months of seclusion, the courtiers’ entertainments climax in a munificent masked ball held in a mazy complex of seven rooms, each one decorated in a different color and equipped with apposite stained-glass windows, all illuminated by a single central fire. The terminal chamber is decorated in black, and its windows are blood red, producing such a terrible effect that hardly anyone dares venture into the room. The ebony clock in the chamber strikes exceedingly peculiar notes when it chimes, inevitably causing the ball’s musicians to pause. The exotic costumes worn by the masqueraders follow exemplars provided by the Prince himself, many of them being described as “dreams.”

As the masquerade reaches the height of its excitement at the approach of midnight, the revelers notice the presence among them of a red-clad figure whose mask simulates the symptoms of the final phase of the Red Death. The appearance of this intruder angers the prince, who considers it a calculated mockery of his stratagem. He commands that the individual should be seized, unmasked, and hanged from the battlements at dawn, but no one dares lay a hand on the mysterious figure as he retreats through the sequence of colored rooms. Eventually, the enraged Prospero rushes after his disrespectful guest himself, pursuing him all the way to the black room—where he is revealed to be a literal personification of the Red Death, come to extend his dominion to the last refuge of the arrogant and mighty.

The Masque of the Red Death Extended Summary

"The Masque of the Red Death" (1842) is a tale of plague, of terror and of death, written in Poe’s gothic style.

In an unspecified year an unnamed land is besieged by the Red Death, a plague which spreads and kills rapidly. Victims are swiftly affected by sharp pains and dizziness, followed by bleeding form the pores. The disease is named for the blood stains on the body and, especially, the face. Victims die within half an hour of the first symptoms.

The land is shrouded in terror, but Prince Prospero is determined not to be a victim. He gathers a thousand of his happy and loyal followers and together they cloister themselves in one of his abbeys. The castle is fortified so that none may enter or leave. Protected from exposure to disease, they remain there for several months.

Eventually Prince Prospero holds a magnificent masquerade ball for his courtiers. The dance is held in an elaborately decorated suite of seven rooms which flow into each other in a maze-like sequence. Each room is a different color, draped in velvet and other ornate furnishings, lit by braziers burning in a corridor beyond and shining through stained glass windows the same color as the furnishings. Only the last room differs. This seventh room is shrouded in black tapestries and carpet, but the windows of this room are blood red, so that the light coming through the windows casts a ghastly hue on the faces of anyone who enters. This room is mostly avoided by the revelers.

The final chamber provides another chilling aspect. It houses a huge ebony clock which ticks loudly and chimes horribly. When it sounds each hour the sound is so disconcerting that the musicians stop playing and the party halts momentarily. This pause is soon over and forgotten until the next hour.

In spite of the room and its clock, the party proceeds gaily. The party goers, safe in their extended seclusion from the outside world, enjoy the festivities. Dressed in masks and costumes ranging from the fanciful to the grotesque, they move from chamber to chamber, each one presenting a different fantasy, avoiding only the final chamber and stopping only when the hourly chimes intrude.

It is only when the clock strikes midnight and the revelries are stopped for the twelve strokes, that the party goers become aware of a figure amongst them not previously noticed. The unrecognizable one is dressed in such a way as to excite terror in the other partygoers. Whilst many among them wear hideous and even frightening costumes, only this figure excites true terror. He is shrouded in burial robes with a death mask covering his face, As a final grotesque touch his face and body are spread with blood.

This joke is too much for even the bravest of the partygoers. When Prospero himself lays eyes on the newcomer he, too, is initially scared, before becoming overcome with rage. His voice rings out through the chambers, ordering the partygoers to seize and unmask the stranger. He is to be punished most severely for daring to blaspheme in such a way.

Despite the Prince’s order, the partygoers are slow to respond. The sight of the figure paralyzes them with fear so that he is able to travel through the chambers unimpeded by the figures he moves amongst. Belatedly,...

(The entire section is 1340 words.)