Because literature has been a male-dominated field, many male writers have written about maleness. Such role development is apparent in American authors from the early nineteenth century onward. Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Fenimore Cooper, and their contemporaries created a male role model who was intended to be contrasted to European models. A key facet of the American ideal of masculinity is self-reliance. The lone frontiersman, woodsman, cowboy, successful businessman, detective, or seaman populates American fiction.