In Chartism (1839) and Past and Present (1843), the great British intellectual Thomas Carlyle voiced his concerns about the condition of his country. It was becoming increasingly divided, he said, into two classes, one of which lived in luxury while the other suffered, starved, and died unheeded. Carlyle’s works were at least partially responsible for inspiring the novels of social and political criticism that appeared in the 1840’s, among them those written by Benjamin Disraeli, who was later to be the British prime minister, and by Elizabeth Gaskell.
Whereas Carlyle and Disraeli viewed the situation from a comfortable distance, however, Elizabeth Gaskell, though not a member of the working class, lived with the problems about which she was writing. As the wife of a Unitarian minister in Manchester, one of the industrial capitals of England, she knew the wealthy leaders of her fashionable church, but she also knew the poor. She saw how hard most of them worked, how easily their lives were shattered, and how desperate many of them had become. In Mary Barton, her first novel, Gaskell hoped to persuade her readers that working-class men and women were not automatons but real people deserving of respect, sympathy, and consideration.
Gaskell makes her argument compelling by creating individuals for her novel, not types, and by doing so with marvelous skill. John Barton, for example, is a thoughtful man, an idealist who does not easily accept the difference between the way things are and the way they should be. He seeks for the causes of misfortunes. Essentially, he is a good man, but when Parliament refuses to accept his union’s petition for redress, John’s heart hardens. His compassion for others turns into anger toward those who are causing the suffering, and he becomes a killer. His repentance is in character, based as it is on his compassion for the father of his victim—indeed, on his identification with him, since John, too, knows what it is to lose a son.
Gaskell’s other working-class...
(The entire section is 842 words.)