Other literary forms
In addition to his novels, Mario Vargas Llosa (VAHR-gahs YOH-sah) has written a number of works of literary criticism. Two of his best-known critiques are Gabriel García Márquez: Historia de un deicidio (1971) and La orgía perpetua: Flaubert y “Madame Bovary” (1975; The Perpetual Orgy: Flaubert and “Madame Bovary,” 1986). In 2004, he published La tentación de lo imposible: Victor Hugo y “Los miserables” (The Temptation of the Impossible: Victor Hugo and “Les Misérables,” 2007), in which he extolls Hugo as a timeless author. He has also written several works of short fiction, most of which are included in the collection Los jefes (1959; The Cubs, and Other Stories, 1979). In 1981, he published his first play, La señorita de Tacna. His other works of drama include La Chunga (pb. 1987; English translation, 1990) and El loco de los balcones (pb. 1993). In Cartas a un joven novelista (1997; Letters to a Young Novelist, 2002), Llosa outlines novelistic structure using examples from James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922) and from the fiction of Marcel Proust. His other works of nonfiction include Claudio Bravo: Paintings and Drawings (1997; with Paul Bowles), about the Chilean-born painter, and Making Waves (1996), a collection of essays on a wide variety of topics. In 1993, he published a memoir primarily concerning his campaign in 1990 for the Peruvian presidency, Pez en el agua (A Fish in the Water: A Memoir, 1994).