Arnold, E. Vernon. Roman Stoicism. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. A series of lectures by a classical scholar, arranged in seventeen chapters. The thought of Marcus Aurelius receives ample treatment, as he is discussed in four chapters.
Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus. The “Meditations” of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Translated by R. Graves. London: Robinson, 1792. Graves was a clergyman and an Oxford don. His assessment of Marcus Aurelius, written toward the end of the Enlightenment, is of historical interest. Accompanied by a biography and notes.
Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus. The Emperor’s Handbook: A New Translation of the “Meditations.” Translated by C. Scot Hicks and David V. Hicks. New York: Scribner, 2002. A lucid translation. Includes index.
Birley, Anthony. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1966. Rev. ed. London: Routledge, 2000. In this well-researched study, Birley aims to disinfect the image of Marcus Aurelius of numerous historical fictions. Includes an illuminating profile of the philosopher-ruler’s early education as revealed through correspondence with his tutor Fronto. Bibliography and index.
Hadot, Pierre. The Inner Citadel: The “Meditations” of Marcus Aurelius. Translated by Michael Chase. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. This analysis of the main themes in the Meditations also provides background to the work.
Morford, Mark P. O. The Roman Philosophers: From the Time of Cato the Censor to the Death of Marcus Aurelius. New York: Routledge, 2002. Places the philosopher in context.
Wenley, R. M. Stoicism and Its Influence. New York: Cooper Square, 1963. A defense of the importance of Stoicism against historians of philosophy who have tended to dismiss it lightly. Discussions of Marcus Aurelius are liberally sprinkled throughout the text.