Name a literary device in Macbeth act 3, scene 1. Quote the line(s) it appears in, and explain how the literary device is used. 

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The first portion of act 3, scene 1 shows Banquo engaged in a soliloquy, a speech a character delivers when they are alone on stage:

Thou hast it now,—king, Cawdor, Glamis, all.
As the weird women promised; and, I fear,
Thou play'dst most foully for't: yet it was said
It should not stand in thy posterity;
But that myself should be the root and father
Of many kings. If there come truth from them,—
As upon me, Macbeth, their speeches shine,—
Why, by the verities on thee made good,
May they not be my oracles as well,
And set me up in hope? But, hush; no more.

A soliloquy tends to show a character's interior life, suggesting that the audience is being given access to a character's unspoken thoughts. This is a common device in Shakespeare's plays. On a stage, the audience needs the character to address them outright with this information, unlike in a novel or even a film, where the character's inner monologue can be portrayed as only existing in thoughts or voice-over.

Here, Banquo shares his thoughts about the fulfillment of the witches' prophecy in regard to Macbeth becoming king. Since it was prophesied that he himself would be an ancestor to kings, he shares his hope that the same will come to pass for his part of the prophecy. The soliloquy ends with Banquo noticing the arrival of other characters, so he halts his thought process (and therefore, the soliloquy itself) with "hush; no more."

Banquo's hopes are also a clear example of irony. Irony is when an event occurs contrary to what one would expect. Banquo hopes his part of the prophecy will also come true, not realizing that it is his murder at the hands of his former friend, Macbeth, that will make sure it comes to fruition.

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Macbeth makes an allusion when he discusses his one-time friend, Banquo. He says,

There is none but heWhose being I do fear; and under himMy genius is rebuked, as it is saidMark Antony's was by Caesar. (3.1.59-62)

Macbeth compares himself to Mark Antony and Banquo to Caesar, implying that his fortune and fate will be less than Banquo's as a result of the prophecy which declared that Banquo would father a line of kings, whereas Macbeth would only be king himself. In this allusion, Macbeth compares himself to a famous and talented leader, someone legendary, and so this shows us not only his fear of Banquo's power but also his feelings about himself.

In this same speech, Macbeth describes his tenure as king as a "fruitless crown" (3.1.65). This is an example of metonymy: when something associated with a thing is substituted for the thing itself. The word fruitless signals Macbeth's lack of fertility, the fact that he will not father kings, that he is—in fact—not a father at all, and so he cannot pass on his crown to his line. The word crown signals Macbeth's role and status as king. He is very upset about...

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the fact that he has done so much in order to become king, and it will all be for nothing once he is dead and gone, as he has no heir to whom he can pass on his power.

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Early on in this scene, in a soliloquy, Banquo uses the literary device of alliteration. Alliteration occurs when words that begin with the same letter are placed in close proximity to each other. This device is found in lines two and three:

As the weird women promised, and I fear
Thou played’st most foully for ’t.
Alliteration shows up in three places: "weird" and "women" both begin with "w," "fear" and "foully" begin with "f," and "promised" and "played" both begin with "p."
The alliteration indicates that Banquo is speaking in a heightened, poetic diction rather than casual, ordinary speech. The alliteration adds a sense of rhythm and emphasis to his words and alerts us to pay close attention to what he is saying. Banquo's suspicions, of which Macbeth will become aware, provide a source of worry for the new king and will soon lead to Banquo's murder.
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Shakespeare uses extended metaphor in Macbeth's dialogue with the murderers in Macbeth.

In Act 3, Scene 1, when Macbeth interviews his murderers for hire, the murderers affirm that they are men.  To which Macbeth wittily replies:

Ay, in the catalogue ye go for men; As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs, Shoughs, water-rugs and demi-wolves, are clept All by the name of dogs.

Macbeth's use of extended metaphor in these lines reveals his cautious appraisal of Banquo's would-be murderers.  The direct comparison between men and dogs suggests Macbeth's shrewd belief that men, like dogs, are not all created in equal respects; just as there are various breeds of dogs, so are there variations among men.

Macbeth continues his extended metaphor as he derives addtional meaning from the comparison.  Some dogs have special talents or gifts "which bounteous nature Hath in him closed", and Macbeth hopes that his murderers-for-hire, like the dogs, have the gift of the "subtle" and "the hunter."

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