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What does "sow's blood that hath eaten her nine farrow" mean in Act 4, Scene 1 of Macbeth?

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"Sow's blood that hath eaten her nine farrow" in Act 4, Scene 1 of Macbeth refers to the blood of a female pig that has cannibalized her offspring. The witches use this in their potion to signify the vile and evil nature of their magic, drawing on ancient pagan rituals and infanticide to emphasize the dark, terrible practices involved.

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A sow is a female pig, and her farrow is her offspring. The witches are brewing magic involving the blood of a cannibalistic pig that has committed infanticide.

This is obviously indicative of a vile and cruel form of magic—and it parallels biblical laws condemning consuming swine, as well as maternal cannibalism. In Hebrew law, it is a sin to "boil a calf in its mother's milk," which is a reference to many pagan practices involving slaughtering a child animal along with its mother, or forcing the mother to consume the child animal. It is a very vile practice and has roots in ancient pagan religions, which is why Shakespeare appropriates it to signify dark, terrible, ancient rituals involving idols and pagan gods.

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The first thing that you need to know in order to understand this is that the word "farrow" even in modern English means "to give birth" when applied to pigs.  You don't say a sow "gave birth" -- you say it "farrowed."

In this scene, the witches are going to conjure up the apparitions that are going to make predictions for Macbeth.  The first apparition is conjured by grease from a murderer and by the blood of the sow that you mention.  In other words, we are being told that you conjure these apparitions by throwing into the fire these evil things -- the grease from a murderer and the blood from a sow that has eaten her own babies.  This shows us how evil the magic that is going on here is.

Here's how eNotes' "translation" of the lines goes:

Pour in the blood of a female pig that has eaten
Her nine piglets, and throw it into the flame
With fat that has dripped
From a murderer's gallows.

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