How does Shakespeare utilize a range of language features to present the pain and disorder of Scotland in the opening of act 4, scene 3?

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In act 4, scene 3, Macduff and Malcolm discuss the state of Scotland under Macbeth's rule of tyranny by using a range of language features, such as anaphora, personification, metaphor, and alliteration.

At the start of the scene, Macduff uses repetition to emphasize what is happening to the country:

each new morn
New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows
Strike heaven on the face . . . .

This repetition of "new" at the start of successive phrases—a technique known as anaphora—shows that new strife is happening each day and compounding.

Malcolm uses personification to describe Scotland:

I think our country sinks beneath the yoke;
It weeps, it bleeds; and each new day a gash
Is added to her wounds

He gives Scotland human qualities of weeping and bleeding, eventually giving the land a "her" pronoun. We can also consider this quote to be a metaphor—there is not a literal gash every single day, but Malcolm says this to help Macduff (and the audience) understand how the country is hurting under Macbeth's rule.

Macduff uses alliteration to describe Macbeth:

Not in the legions
Of horrid hell can come a devil more damn'd
In evils to top Macbeth.

We see the repetition of h, c, d, and t as starting letters. Macduff further uses the technique of apostrophe, expressing his emotions by crying out for his country numerous times:

O Scotland, Scotland!

O nation miserable

O my breast,
Thy hope ends here!

When Ross arrives, he confirms what Macduff and Malcolm have been saying: Scotland is not well.

Alas, poor country!
Almost afraid to know itself. It cannot
Be call'd our mother, but our grave; where nothing,
But who knows nothing, is once seen to smile;
Where sighs and groans and shrieks that rend the air
Are made, not mark'd; where violent sorrow seems
A modern ecstasy; the dead man's knell
Is there scarce ask'd for who; and good men's lives
Expire before the flowers in their caps,
Dying or ere they sicken.

Here, Ross uses similar techniques as Macduff and Malcolm: anaphora (using the word "where"), personification, metaphor, and alliteration.

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