Are there any quotes that show Macbeth's self-awareness? If so, what techniques are present in those quotes?

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Yes, Macbeth certainly does show self-awareness, even from the beginning of the play. When he first hears the prophecies of the witches—namely that he will be king one day—Macbeth is already aware that he's thinking of killing Duncan and that it's an evil idea. He says in an...

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Cannot be ill, cannot be good: if ill,Why hath it given me earnest of success,Commencing in a truth? I am thane of Cawdor:If good, why do I yield to that suggestionWhose horrid image doth unfix my hairAnd make my seated heart knock at my ribs,Against the use of nature? (I.iii)

The predictions of the witches, he says, cannot be a bad thing because he benefits by gaining a higher title. He thinks, though, it can't be all good because he's already considering murdering Duncan: "why do I yield to that suggestion / Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair." Macbeth is already aware that he is making a bad decision. He is able to weigh both sides of the issue, as well.

After he commits the murder, Macbeth knows that he will not overcome his guilt or be able to "wash his hands" of his sins. This is what he's referring to when he says "Macbeth doth murder sleep"—he will never sleep easily again because of his guilt. This shows his self-awareness even while his is panicking and upset.

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The technical term for such self-awareness is anagnorisis. This is a Greek word used to describe a moment in a work of literature in which a character makes a critical discovery about himself. In the case of Macbeth, there are many such examples. Arguably the most tragic is when Macbeth himself finally breaks free of the Weird Sisters' spell and realizes that they've been playing him all along:

And be these juggling fiends no more believed,
That palter with us in a double sense,
That keep the word of promise to our ear,
And break it to our hope. (Act V, Scene viii).
Macbeth has been made to look like a complete fool by the witches. They prophesied that he would never be defeated by a man born from a woman. But as Macduff informs Macbeth before they face off in mortal combat, he was delivered by Caesarean section and so the prophecy doesn't apply to him. Macbeth's realization, his moment of self-awareness, has come far too late. Macduff is hell-bent on avenging the death of his family, and so Macbeth, no longer under the witches' protection—inasmuch as he ever was—has no choice but to stand and fight for what turns out to be the very last time.
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Macbeth demonstrates his self-awareness throughout the play, beginning in Act I, Scene 4, when he says, "Stars, hide your fires; Let not light see my black and deep desires." He recognizes that his ambition to be king by killing Duncan would be an indefensible and immoral act, yet his thoughts drift to that place.

Another quotation that demonstrates Macbeth's self-awareness is found in Act I, Scene 7, when he observes "I have no spur/ To prick the sides of my intent, but only/Vaulting ambition." What Macbeth means is that he has no legitimate reason to commit regicide; Duncan is a fine king with integrity and a loyal following. He admits that the only reason he wants to kill Duncan is because he wants the throne for himself.

Another example is found in Act I, Scene 7, when Lady Macbeth questions her husband's masculinity. He answers her briefly and without apparent heat: "I dare do all that may become a man;/ Who dares do more is none." Here, Macbeth is solid in his self-awareness as a man; he is, after all, a heroic soldier who has just dispatched rebels in the name of Scotland.

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