The Lute Analysis
by Gao Ming

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Places Discussed

(Critical Guide to Settings and Places in Literature)


Caijiazhuang (tsi-geeah-JWANG). Rural village in eastern China that is the home to the young scholar Bojie, who enjoys reading books in the garden surrounded by rivers, winding paths, and peach and pear trees spreading in the sky. Wonderful flowers, herbs, and chirping birds create scenes of rich pastoral abundance. At the end of the opera, Zhao Wuniang’s plight moves the heart of the prime minister’s daughter, and she, Zhao Wuniang, and Bojie settle down as a family in Caijiazhuang, where they pay respect to their ancestors.


Luoyang (Loo-YAHNG). Capital of China under the Han Dynasty where Bojie reluctantly goes to take a competitive examination. On his way to the city, he meets three other examination candidates with whom he forms a partnership. Along their way, they discuss scholastic matters, drink wine, and recite poetry. The capital city is filled with magnificent towers and terraces, rows of willow trees, ornamental bridges, beaded curtains, and embroidered screens in the aristocratic homes. When he goes to meet the prime minister, Bojie is impressed with the opulence of his court. Bojie plays a lute in Luoyang to express his homesickness and yearning for the wife and parents he has left behind. Under orders of the emperor, he marries the prime minister’s daughter and cannot leave the capital city.

Apricot Garden

Apricot Garden. Garden in Luoyang to which Bojie is invited to attend a lavish feast after he earns the highest score on the Confucian examinations. The Apricot Garden is a scenic paradise with yellow flags flapping in the breeze, bunches of flowers and brocades hanging everywhere, and fragrant apricot blossoms. Bojie enjoys a celebratory feast on tables inlaid with coral and turtle shells but greatly misses his wife back in his home village.


(Great Characters in Literature)

Birch, Cyril. “Some Concerns and Methods of the Ming Ch’uan-ch’i Drama.” In Studies in Chinese Literary Genres, edited by Cyril Birch. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974. A background essay on the Southern drama of the Ming dynasty.

Birch, Cyril. “Tragedy and Melodrama in Early Ch’uan-ch’i Plays: Lute...

(The entire section is 515 words.)